Laboratory Experiment on Venturi Meter and Orifice Meter

Venturi & Orifice Meter INTRODUCTION As we learned in the Impact Jet lab, the speed of a moving jet of water is proportional to the water’s velocity.  This is evident in a turbine flow meter, where the impact force of the water on the blades sets the rotor in motion.  Once there is a steady … Read More»

Comparison of Different Turbulent Models for Backward-facing Step Flow

Comparison of Different Turbulent Models for Backward -facing Step Flow Abstract A comparison of different turbulence model for flow over a backward facing Step is presented. A Reynolds number of 36,00 and an averaged velocity of 41.7 m/s was considered. The result was compared with data by Driver and Seegmiller.  The purpose of this paper … Read More»

The Quantum Hall Effect

THE QUANTUM HALL EFFECT Abstract The Quantum Hall effect (QHE) is the observation of the Hall effect in a two-dimensional electron gas system (2DEG) such as graphene and MOSFETs. It represents good example of physical systems where quantization effect could be observed microscopically as a result of the interplay of the topology, interactions of electron … Read More»

History of Modern Cosmology and the Rise of the Big Bang Model

History of modern cosmology/ Rise of the Big Bang Model: Soon after Einstein had formulated the general theory of relativity, in 1917 he postulated that the universe is homogenous, isotropic, static, with a constant mean mass density and curvature of space. However, this model was not permitted by his field equations as they suggested that … Read More»

Physics of a Total Artificial Heart (TAH)

A Change of Heart     Abstract   The essential part of the circulatory system is the heart. In other words, any organism cannot live without this organ properly functioning. The duties and mechanisms of these functions must be performed correctly or else there could be potential serious consequences to the rest of the body. … Read More»

Optimal Angles of Projectile Motion

Optimal Angles of Projectile Motion What is the optimal angle of a projectile from a given height? Contents 1. Introduction 1.1 Brief History of the Problem 1.2 Deriving the Equations of Motion 2. Initial Problem 3. Developing the answer 4.      Developing the Final Solution Conclusion Bibliography 1.    Introduction Projectile motion is the motion experienced by a particle or object … Read More»

Maximum Power Point Tracking Circuit Driven by an Arduino

Progress Report   MPPT circuit driven by an Arduino                         1.ABSTRACT: MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking) are electronic devices that  Engineers are designing, making and improving to get the maximum power out of solar panels at various  condition. 2.INTRODUCTION: As we all know, most … Read More»

Do the Laws of Physics Lie?

Do the Laws of Physics Lie? Cartwright (1983) claims that the laws of Physics lie. There is causal power of things and specific interpretation of objects, which make the author reconsider the basic concepts of physics. First, the core idea of Cartwright is to underline the main goal of physics or the description of things … Read More»

Synthesis Techniques for Fabrication of Nanofibers

Chapter # 02 Synthesis Techniques Introduction The different synthesis techniques for fabrication of nanofibers and nanoparticles will be discussed briefly in this chapter. The selected techniques and the experimental procedure for the synthesis of the nanoparticles and composite nanofibers will be discussed in detail. Synthesis Techniques for Nanoparticles Synthesis method being used for the preparation … Read More»

History of Atomic Theory

The atomic theory is developed since 2000 years ago the Greek philosopher Democritus proposed that there was a limit to how small one could be divide matter, this smallest matter indivisible particle was called “atom”. However this atomic theory of Democritus was criticized by Aristotle who proposed a model based on four basic “elements” of … Read More»

Isaac Newton by James Gleick | Review

Isaac Newton by James Gleick Opinion Isaac Newton was the most famous scientist of his generation and one of the most recognizable physicists of all time. He accomplished amazing feats; he “pushed open a door that led to a new universe” (8). Some of his major achievements include the application of the law of gravity to … Read More»

Forces in Skeletal Structure of the Arm

Bio Mechanics and Kinetics Task 1. Produce a labelled diagram showing the forces involved on the skeletal structure of a human arm as a weight is being held at a particular angle. Your report should use the principle of moments to fully describe all of the forces that are being applied at various points along … Read More»

Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM)

Operation A sample is made to oscillate using a vibrational unit extended on a rod. The sample is placed between two electromagnetic pieces which are used as the applied field for this this experiment. With the sample oscillating induces a voltage between the search coils which creates a signal to determine the magnetic properties of … Read More»

Measuring Concentration of Natural Gas in Air

Measuring concentration of natural gas in air using a catalytic bead sensor and a Wheatstone bridge circuit   Abstract. A vacuum system and a catalytic bead combustible gas sensor were used to calibrate and test an apparatus for measuring the concentration of natural gas in air. Total concentrations ranged between 0%-5% and total pressure from … Read More»

Crystal Growth and Nonlinear Optics

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO CRYSTAL GROWTH AND NONLINEAR OPTICS 1.1 INTRODUCTION Crystal growth is regarded as an ancient subject, owing to the fact that the crystallization of salt and sugar were known to the ancient Indian and Chinese civilizations. The subject of crystal growth was treated as part of crystallography and never had an independent identity until … Read More»

The Inhibitory Effects of Low Power Radiofrequency

Inhibitory effects of low thermal radiofrequency radiation on physiological parameters of Zea mays seedlings grown Mihaela Răcuciu1, Cora Iftode2 and Simona MiclăuÅŸ3   Abstract. The inhibitory effects of low power radiofrequency field on physiological parameters of Zea mays plantlets developed from exposed seeds were obtained in present experiment. Identical biological samples of 30 Zea mays seeds with a uniform genophond … Read More»

New Generation of a Mobile Primary Frequency Standard

New generation of a mobile primary frequency standard based on cold atoms S T Müller 1, J de Martin Júnior 1, R D Pechoneri 1, P Santa Catharina1, V S Bagnato2 and D V Magalhães1 Abstract. We have constructed a mobile primary frequency standard using intra-cavity cold cesium atoms and the first results shown the advantages of using this kind … Read More»

Study of Ceramic Perovskites-type Oxides (ABO3)

2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Introduction Ceramic perovskites-type oxides (ABO3) have been studied extensively due to the high conductivity and low activation energy. Among of perovskite type-oxide, an investigation of cerate zirconate attracts great attention to the researcher. It is well known as ion conductor and good chemical stability at intermediate temperature. It properties give big … Read More»

Effect of Ionic Pollution on Aerosol Nucleation

EFFECT OF IONIC POLLUTION ON AEROSOL NUCLEATION AND CLOUD FORMATION ABSTRACT Atmospheric aerosol particles have a strong impact on the global climate and that is the main reason for many observed events of new aerosol formation being not understood. Forwarding, to explain these events one of the theory put is that the presence of ions can … Read More»

Strategies to Produce Thermonuclear Plasmas

What is the Joint European Torus and how does it work? The Joint European Torus, or JET, is a physics facility located in the Culham Centre for Fusion Energy in Oxfordshire. Plasma physicists and engineers there are producing thermonuclear plasmas under magnetic confinement in order to show that fusion energy is a reliable source of … Read More»

Field Programmable Gate Array based Digital Module

Field Programmable Gate Array based Digital Module for Laser Frequency Stabilization A.Rastogi1, N. Batra, S.De2, S.Panja and A. Sen Gupta   Introduction Frequency stabilized lasers are a crucial part in variety of atom-photon experiments such as atomic spectroscopy [1], laser cooling [2], probing the excited states of atoms [3] etc. Depending on the application, a … Read More»

Polarisation of Light Investigation

Abstract. An optical system consisting of a laser, a polariser, a quarter-wave plate, a prism, and a light detector connected to a multi-meter was used to find the transmission axes of the polariser and the quarter-wave plate, find the angle of polarisation of the laser relative to the optical axis and investigate the quality of … Read More»

Medical Treatment Using Computed Tomography (CT)

Breast Plan Part One Treatment Site / Diagnosis: Left Breast Treatment Modality: 2 Dimensional tangential Type of Patient Data: Computed tomography and virtual simulation Technique: Isocentric Prescription Isodose: 40GY in 15# Part Two Computed tomography (CT) was employed as an imaging modality for this treatment. In general, CT is the standard imaging modality employed. This … Read More»

Advantages of Metamaterials

The future is here and you wouldn’t believe how far research has come. Through countless experiments and hard work scientists have expanded the limits on what we thought to be impossible via advances in metamaterials. These so called “metamaterials” are artificially constructed improvements over naturally occurring materials commonly used in inventions. These metamaterials are altered … Read More»

Variation of Light Intensity | Example Physics Essay

This essay was produced by one of our professional writers as a learning aid to help you with your studies Example Physics Essay The variation of light intensity with distance; namely the inverse square law of light intensity with distance. Background Theory Light emitted from any kind of source, e.g. the sun, a light bulb, … Read More»

Example Physics Essay

This essay was produced by one of our professional writers as a learning aid to help you with your studies Example Physics Essay The Motion of a Mass Spring System The example of a mass attached to the end of a spring is a powerful tool in physics due to the fact that it is … Read More»

Physics Essays – Atom Model Theory

This essay was produced by one of our professional writers as a learning aid to help you with your studies Atom Model Theory History of the model of the atom The atomic theory is developed since 2000 years ago the Greek philosopher Democritus proposed that there was a limit to how small one could be … Read More»


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