The Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale Psychology Essay

Tobacco, according to World Health Organization (WHO), is one of the biggest public health threats the world has ever faced. Several reports conclude that cigarette smoking is the massive avoidable cause of premature death and disability worldwide (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2004; Hatsukami et al., 2008). In Malaysia, the prevalence of smoking … Read More»

The Mental Health Formulation Psychology Essay

The diagnostic model has been under severe scrutiny lately. Its main flaw involving placing all distress in confined categories, based on superficial and subjective ‘symptoms’ (Kleinman, 1988). Consequently, the mental health field have sparked a catalyst of attention towards a more holistic approach, in the form of a formulation. A formulation is a theoretically influenced … Read More»

The Major Function Of Human Hand Psychology Essay

The major function of human hand is to manipulate object to accomplish a goal. The ability of a human hand to assure a myriad of position and to apply only the precise amount of pressure necessary to hold an object is owned to the mobility and stability supplied bye the skeleton, to the power of … Read More»

The Main Types Of Social Enquiry Psychology Essay

Research is the systematic investigation and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions.Main types of social enquiry. Social Inquiry provides students with a broad overview of modern social theory and approaches, addressing themes common across disciplines in the social sciences-especially sociology, politics, economics, and anthropology. Case study A … Read More»

The link between depression and criminal behavior

Depression is a wide-reaching condition that affects millions of Americans who experience it in a few different archetypes, but each can be crippling. Bipolar disorder, a severe type of depression, has been connected to criminal behavior when one considers prison-population statistics and the percentage of manic depressives who commit crimes. Factors such as substance abuse, … Read More»

The link between anorexia and depression

onset of puberty. Individuals suffering from anorexia have extreme weight loss. Weight loss is usually 15% below the person’s normal body weight. People suffering from anorexia are very skinny but are convinced that they are overweight. Weight loss is obtained by many ways. Some of the common techniques used are excessive exercise, intake of laxatives … Read More»

The Lifestyles Among Students Psychology Essay

Students face various stresses and with the change of values and modern rearing practices shaped by new media, the nature of stressors has changed. Present study tries to identify and evaluate the life-style to stress and examine the impact of the same on well-being and examines the coping mechanisms used by the students. For the … Read More»

The Impact Of Work Role Fit Psychology Essay

achieved. Seligman refers to happiness as the experience of joy and satisfaction and the sense that a person’s life is meaningful and worthwhile. The 21st century workplace is not what it used to be in the past and organisations need to adapt to the changing nature of the workplace in order to survive in this … Read More»

The Impact Of Levels Of Processing Independent Variable Psychology Essay

The aim of this experiment was to investigate the impact of levels of processing (Independent Variable) on our memory (Dependent Variable). We hypothesized to find that a deeper level of processing lead to a better memory and in turn, greater recall. The experiment controlled variables such as environmental conditions, age of the target population and … Read More»

The History Of The Operant Conditioning Psychology Essay

B. F. Skinner was born on March 20, 1904 in Susquehanna, Pennsylvania (Vargas, 2005). As a boy he enjoyed inventing and building things. He would later use this skill for psychological experiments (Cherry, 2012b). In 1926, Skinner received a B. A. in English literature from Hamilton College. He spent time as a writer until he … Read More»

The History Of The Inhibition Control Theory Psychology Essay

As far back as the 1800’s William James came up with the notion of a primary memory with limited capacity a distinction from long term memory. Today working memory is defined as a limited capacity work space, a processing form of memory distinguished from short term memory which has been depicted as a short term … Read More»

The Gestalt Laws Of Perceptual Organisation Psychology Essay

In the early 20th Century, Gestalt psychologists attempted to explain how sensory information is interpreted, stating that the brain creates a perceptual experience greater than the sum of its parts in standard and predictable ways (Gross, 2010). Their laws of perceptual organisation explain perceptual segregation; how visual information, which otherwise would look like random patterns … Read More»

General Strain Theory

These categories include: being in the presence of negative stimuli, not being able to get past goal blockages, and the loss of positive stimuli. In context of the category of strain related to being in the presence of a negative stimulus, a negative stimulus can be described as any stimulus that has undesirable consequences. Some … Read More»

The Gender And Empathy Psychology Essay

different with age. This study measure level of empathy of 505 male and female aged 13 to 16 by using Bryant’s Index of Empathy for Children and Adolescents and Davis’s Interpersonal Reactivity Index. The result of Index of Empathy for Children and Adolescents shows that female has greater empathic response than male. Besides, female also … Read More»

The functional organisation of the human brain

This discussion is based on the double dissociations and the methodologies that help us to understand and evaluate how the functional organisations of the human brain work. A number of different methodologies and alternative views will be evaluated and compared in support of the brains functions. To begin with, an outline of Fodor (1983) and … Read More»

The four core concepts of person centered therapy

Person-Centered therapy (also referred to as Client-Centered or Rogerian therapy) is a form of psychotherapy that was developed by psychologist Carl Rogers. Developed in the 1930s, the Person-Centered Approach is one of the most widely used forms of therapy to date. There are four core concepts for the Person-Centered Approach. The first concept is self-actualization. … Read More»

The factors that shape our personality

in the way people walk, talk, eat, drink, dress and so on, which provide great insights into the individual. A person who studies personality is called a personologist. Personologists look into these aspects of individuals and attempt to explain the reasons for these differences. There are three sources which provide information for studying personality, namely; … Read More»

The evolution and adaptation of infanticide and siblicide

INTRODUCTION – LIFE HISTORY The term ‘life history’ describes an organism’s strategy of allocating time and energy between growth, reproduction and survival (Levin 2009; Bergon, Townsend and Harper 2008). Life history traits make up an organism’s life history and include growth patterns, size at birth, size and age at sexual maturity, the number, size and … Read More»

The Emotional Recognition And Empathy Psychology Essay

Emotions play an essential role in human communication and the ability to perceive others emotional signals is called empathy. The main aim of this study was to test hypothetical associations between personality traits and empathy scores, according to the Big Five (Thompson, 2008) and individuals’ performance on a behavioural measure of empathy through the Eye … Read More»

The Effects Of Music On Memory Psychology Essay

Memory is the power of a persons mind to remember things where it is a mental activity that involves receiving, storing and recalling information. The microscopic chemical changes which occur at the joining points between neurons in the brain are where the memories are stored. The activity of the neurons in the brain, when the … Read More»

The effects of amnesia and its different types

inability to remember important information to such a degree that it has moderate to severe effects on person’s life (Logsdon). The effects of amnesia are related to the type of amnesia patient is suffering. The most common effect is the inability to recall information stored in the long-term memory. There are some cases that patient … Read More»

The Effect Of Semantic Category Psychology Essay

Tuving, suggested that in order to attain good memory banks, one way of retrieving information is to organize words that have a relationship with one another. For example, clustering words together in one category could help achieve better recall, rather than words that are randomly mixed. Clustering could help re-organize memory, therefore, attaining information more … Read More»

The effect of birth order on personality

research recognizes the fact that the development needs of a first born differs from the last child in a family. In order for children to gain access to the resources of the family, they have different developmental strategies by establishing their own niche and these strategies are manifested by behavioral and personality differences between siblings. … Read More»

The effect of background noise on free recall

participants were recruited for this psychological study. The experimental groups were the speech condition (N=20) and the whale sound condition (N=20) whereas the silent condition (N=20) accounted for the control condition. Participants were randomly assigned to each group. The speech, whale sound and silence accounted for the three levels of independent variable whereas the subjective … Read More»

The Development Of Addiction Problems Psychology Essay

Universally speaking, addiction is defined as the continued use of a mood altering substance or behaviour despite adverse dependency consequences. It is an “impaired control over a reward seeking behaviour from which harm ensues”, (West, 2007). Such forms of addiction can include drug abuse and alcohol abuse, which fall under the category of substance addictions. … Read More»

The developmental stages of adolescence and adulthood

As a growth stage, adolescence is characterized by exponential and dramatic physical milestones which enable an individual develop from childhood to adulthood. It is during this stage that secondary sexual characteristics emerge due to a surge in production of testosterone in boys as well as estrogen in case of girls (Slee, 2002). These hormones continue … Read More»

The Definition And Determinants Of Personality Psychology Essay

Better operation of organizations associate with different individuals, how they work and performance can influence the running of organization. Because different individuals have their own knowledge, experience, perception, skill and characteristic that just as the important resources to the organization. There are many notions of personality from different literatures; however there is no specific one … Read More»

The Concept Of Sports Fandom Psychology Essay

This chapter will provide the related views of the different studies concerning sports fan, sports spectatorship, sports watching behavior, fan motivations and team identification. An extensive review of literature is needed to give a better understanding of its earlier findings to relate it to the research questions. The review of literature is presented in the … Read More»

The Cognitive Approach To Psychology Psychology Essay

Learning is a hypothetical construct. It cannot be directly observed but only inferred from observable behaviour. Psychologists usually define learning as a relatively permanent change in behaviour due to past experience, or the process by which relatively permanent changes in behavioural potential occur as a result of experience. While it is generally agreed by psychologists … Read More»

The biological process that causes ptsd

behavioral changes in soldiers returning from war. Many doctors and psychologists believe that soldiers are undertreated and under-diagnosed after they return home, resulting in an almost exponential growth in suicide rates. Soldiers diagnosed with PTSD are struck with behavioral, cognitive, and biological changes in the brain, symptoms that are often overlooked or misdiagnosed. Post traumatic … Read More»

The Basic Building Blocks Of Quantitative Research Psychology Essay

Qualitative Research Methodology is gaining wide spread acceptance among Researchers in Social Sciences Circle but finds less acceptance among Basic Scientists and Engineers who prefer to use Quantitative (Statistical) Methods of Research. Statistics can be defined as collecting, summarizing, and analyzing of data. Selection of a statistical analysis that is appropriate depends on whether the … Read More»

The Affects Of Perception On Other People Psychology Essay

Introduction Perception is the process by which people organize and obtain meaning from the sensory motivation they receive from the environment. This report focuses on perception, its importance and how it affects other people, groups of people and the social climate of an organization. Perception is defined and the key factors affection perception is described. … Read More»

The Advantages and Disadvantages of Case Study Research

Introduction This work is to present the case study as a research approach, showing that its characterization is not an easy task, due mainly to its many different approaches and applications. It highlights its increasing importance as a research tool, exploring its origins, meanings and delineation as an investigation methodology. In order to demonstrate its … Read More»

The abnormal psychology

researcher thinks “The Dark Knight” includes numerous of characters that would be diagnose with some type of psychological disorder. However, the researcher examines Batman to determine the type of psychological disorder uncovered in the movie “The Dark Knight.” The reason why the researcher chose to examine Batman is because not often people think of Batman … Read More»

Symptoms of schizoaffective disorder

In the film Shine, protagonist David Helfgott is an authentic example of someone who suffers from schizoaffective disorder. From the start of the film we are able to see the accuracy of this diagnosis through David’s childhood upbringing and his relationship with his abusive father. This will further be addressed throughout this paper and adequate … Read More»

Symptoms Of Disorganized Schizophrenia Psychology Essay

Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder characterized by delusions, hallucinations and physical agitation; which typically causes such patients to severely misjudge the distinction between reality and their imagination. Schizophrenia’s prevalence in the world was highlighted as 26th in the list of diseases, ranked according to their contribution to their overall burden to society as a whole … Read More»

Substance Abuse And Addiction Psychology Essay

To gather information on substance abuse and addiction, a literature review was conducted of online informational sources, including federal agencies, and numerous electronic databases for scholarly articles including (CINAHL, PubMed, Medscape, and Medline) published between 1999 and 2012. Categorical search terms employed included addiction, substance abuse, opioids, alcohol, prescription drugs, impaired nurse, cost of drug … Read More»

Study On The Emotional Disturbances In Children

Childhood is a happy time for most children. Full of good friends, happy families, and exciting experiences. However, some children do not experience such a childhood. Their childhoods were filled with turmoil and feeling like they did not belong. Emotional disturbance in children is a very serious matter that parents, caregivers, and educators should not … Read More»

Study on the dual code memory model

separate non verbal system for spatial information and mental imagery. Verbal information is largely associated with the left hemisphere and non verbal information is associated with the right hemisphere of the brain. These functions can function independently but are also interconnected. According to Paivio the images and words that have a high imagery rated concrete … Read More»

Study on stress management for teachers in Malaysia

Teaching is one of the most stressful jobs in Malaysia. The talk on “Stress Management for Teachers” (Kolej Disted-Stamford news, 23 February 2008) declared that teaching is a challenging profession and hence, teachers could do with learning how to de-stress to maintain good health and high spirits. There are two main sources of stress which affect … Read More»

Study on Sigmund Freud and his psychological theories

Freud’s theories not only applied to his neurotic patients, but every human being. A way of trying to explain this, as well as a way of reinforcing his idea of repression, came in the way of his theories on disparate behavior such as dreaming, joking, parapraxes and symptoms. Though his observations are novel, we have … Read More»

Study on phelan mcdermid syndrome

terminal or interstitial. A terminal deletion involves a single break in the long arm of chromosome 22 that removes the distal portion. An interstitial deletion occurs when two breaks occur within the long arm of chromosome 22 and only the segment between the two breaking points is lost. In Phelan-McDermid Syndrome, terminal deletions occur more … Read More»

Study On Past And Present Behaviorism Psychology Essay

Behaviorism began with Descartes and is considered to be the oldest theory of personality. Descartes saw humans as a machine of sorts, whereas behaviorists view humans as some conduit between the environment and behavior. Behaviorism arose from the coincidence of a number of significant events in psychology and related disciplines at a time when western … Read More»

Study on Cognitive Psychology: Problem Solving and Creativity

Cognitive psychology has always been a normal part of everyday life that people tend to not notice it at all. When faced with a problem, cognitive abilities are used. Creativity is often used when thinking of a solution for a certain problem. The problem-solving process is described to be a cycle from recognizing the problem … Read More»

Study On Anxiety And Autism Spectrum Disorder

Autism spectrum disorder and anxiety disorders can be co-occurring disorders in youth who are high functioning and aware of their different social disability. The reviewed research conducted on anxiety in children and adolescents diagnosed with Autism spectrum disorder reviewed aims to sum up the empirical research on the treatment, occurrence and presentation of anxiety in … Read More»

Study Of Philosophical Assumption Analysis

reflexivity, methodological reflexivity, and disciplinary reflexivity (Hardy, 2001; Holland, 1999). Reflexivity particularly illustrates the philosophical assumptions, and the executive steps toward the objectives. Thereby, the chapter discusses how the tentative model is refined according qualitative evidences and validated by quantitative supports (Bryman & Bell, 2007, p. 648; Churchill, 1979; Eisenhardt, 1989; Jick, 1979). Figure below … Read More»

Personality And Employee Behaviour

with that of the various factors which determine the employee behaviour in an organizational setting. For this purpose the essay first talks about both organizational behaviour and personality in brief and moves onto discussing the various theories relating to personality (Big Five Factor Model and Myers Briggers Type Indicator) along with the criticism that they … Read More»

Study of applied behaviour analysis

behaviour – the targeted behaviour to change might have real-life implications for the person (applied), behaviour is assessed by conducting structured observation and measurement (behaviour), and the behaviour is analysed in detail within the environment to determine influencing factors (analysis). The general assumption is that by manipulating environmental events, behaviour can consequently be changed in … Read More»

Study into how the Human Memory works

retain and recall information. Or memory can also be defined as the process of acquiring information through encoding by changing it to a usable form, storage for later use and retrieval by bringing stored memories into conscious awareness state. In order to understand the human memory and how it works then we have to understand … Read More»

Structure, Strengths And Weaknesses In Observation

Collecting data is a key word in any research paper. The way the researcher collects his data leads to a fruitful research or a non successful one. To collect data, thee exists several tools or instruments. It’s up to the researcher to select the best tool for his research with regards to the type of … Read More»

Stress In The Medical Field Psychology Essay

long time. A big majority of classical studies have shown that prolonged stress exposure leads to such adverse effects as the decrease in overall mental stability of the organism, the emergence of dissatisfaction of its activities, the tendency to reject assignments in situations of increased requirements, setbacks and defeats. Analysis of the factors that cause … Read More»

Stress And Well Being Psychology Essay

People are more stressed today than in the past. Researches were made to measure and to manage stress. For measuring stress, researches used a couple of types. One was the Social Readjustment rating scale or SRRS. This measure of stress was “devised” by Holmes and Rahe in 1960. Their thought was that stress is more … Read More»

Strategies For Improving Working Memory Psychology Essay

Research has indicated that working memory is not only associated with academic achievement, but also behaviour in class and at home (Alloway et al., 2009; Aronen, Vuontela, Steenari, Salmi, & Carlson, 2005; Gathercole et al., 2008). Some have found that working memory underlies that ability to control attention and resist distraction from irrelevant stimuli (Kane … Read More»

Sport And Exercise Psychology Psychology Essay

Sports Psychology involves the research of the emotional factors associated with participation in sport. Sport Psychology gives a fundamental of knowing how the various aspects of mindset can be applied to sport participation. Evaluation of character types will be discussed relating to sport participation. This will be extended to discuss the inspiration and leadership participation … Read More»

Spearman and the general factor of intelligence

Since Spearman first suggested a general factor of intelligence (g) in 1904, many theorists have developed their own ideas about the nature of intelligence. Some agree on the existence of general intelligence, albeit the nature of g is hotly debated, and some disagree completely with the notion of g. The main theories to consider after … Read More»

Sources Of Stress Among Teachers Psychology Essay

Stress is a psycho-physiological process which arises out from the intercommunication of the individual with the environment (Muhammad et al, 2010) and (luthans, 1998) which ends up in disturbances and manifestations depending on the individual characteristics such as health status or psychological process such as attitude (Muhammad et al, 2010).As reported by Ingrid (1997) adapted … Read More»

Sources Of Enjoyment In Youth Sport Questionnaire Psychology Essay

Nowadays the population and the governmental authorities are more conscious of the potential of sport in influencing the society and youth athlete development, not only in what concerns to physical aspects but also in psychological and social domains. However, the sport practice per se isn’t, necessarily, a positive factor of influences in youth positive development, … Read More»

Social Roles And Their Effect On Perceived Intelligence Psychology Essay

Attribution has been defined as the process by which people make judgements about themselves and other people. Fritz Heider (1958), coined the phrase ‘attribution theory’. Heider concluded that people make attributions about people’s behaviour based either on their internal disposition or on their external situations. In some cases the attributions may be correct but in … Read More»

Social Networking And Uncertainty Reduction Theory Psychology Essay

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between social networking and uncertainty reduction theory having the focus on how this theory is related to social attraction and uncertainty reduction in a social media situation. Previous research suggests that as uncertainty decreases the threshold of information increases. Results suggest that (popular media personnel … Read More»

Social Learning Theory Self Esteem Psychology Essay

Disordered eating behavior can range in severity from various types of dieting to extreme weight control behaviors including purging behaviors and extreme self starvation (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). Eating disorders currently effect a small proportion of the population, however maladaptive patterns of eating and food restriction are probably more common. Examining the possible mechanisms that … Read More»

Social interaction and touch initiation in public places

‘Touch’- is a fundamental behaviourism of non-verbal communication within the human species – it can be both powerful or subtle, and very complex. This observational study investigates the behaviour of non-verbal communication (NVC) in relation to touch initiation in public places. The group studied are of latter adolescent stage, and opposite sex couples. Henley started … Read More»

Social Cognitive Studies Of Stereotyping Psychology Essay

This paper provides a social engineering model that uses social cognitive studies of stereotyping to reduce discriminatory behavior. Different strategies need to be implemented for a proper result. Contact with the outgroup, in its different types, can be helpful in reducing the perceived difference. Law implementation and policies are needed to prohibit discriminatory behavior. The … Read More»

Sleep is a facilitator of information processing

Sleeping is crucial for coping with such as it nourishes the bodies need for physiological rest and repair after such stress, and also simultaneously facilitates crucial information processing in the mind. In fact, sleep is one of the most essential functions of the human body. The unconscious information processing that takes place during sleep plays … Read More»

Skinners theory, methodology and research in personality development

The field of personality development is a source of continuous scrutiny and criticism within the subject of Psychology. In particular, the basis of Skinner’s theory of personality has attracted a large amount of criticism, however, despite this its contribution regarding the development of personality cannot be disregarded, particularly when considering specific pertinent elements theorised that … Read More»

Skinners ideas on Reinforcement, Behaviorism and Consciousness

Reinforcement is a term in operant conditioning and behavior analysis for the process of increasing the rate or probability of a behavior (e.g. pulling a lever more frequently) by the delivery or emergence of a stimulus (e.g. a candy) immediately or shortly after the behavior, called a “response,” is performed. The response strength is assessed by measuring frequency, duration, latency, accuracy, and/or persistence of the response after reinforcement … Read More»

Single or multiple intelligences

are there? It is important to note that this question of single or multiple intelligences is not a new one. Many psychologists and scientists have tried for centuries to define the term “intelligence” in a scientifically correct and acceptable manner. It is apparent that many, who have aspired, have arrived at controversial theories that have … Read More»

Single case design

Introduction Single case design (SCD) is also called intrasubject-replication design, single case research, time series methodology, N=1 research and so on. (Hilliard, 1993) This is an experimental method utilized in one analytical unit, and only one or few subjects will be observed, in other words, SCD strongly focuses on intra-participant variability. Kazdin (1982) had asserted … Read More»

Similarities and differences: short and long term memory

It is widely accepted that memory can best be understood in terms of three essential stages (encoding, storage, and retrieval of information) that involve the flow of information through memory system. In general, short-term memory (STM) refers to limited capacity that can store information for short periods of time. On the contrary, long-term memory (LTM) … Read More»

The significance of preventing accidents In a construction industry

Today, most of the top managers, contractors and workers, who work in construction industry, are aware about the significance of preventing accident.( In fact they know that ignoring safety and health can impose a high penalty on a company -large or small. Also individual accident or injury can mean compensation, time off and lost production … Read More»

Should Most Violent Game Be Banned Psychology Essay

The banning and/or restricting of video games movement is getting play in the U.S. and in Europe right now. Earlier this week, European Union ministers considered a stronger rating system and possible banning of certain violent video games throughout Europe (no specific games were mentioned, but clips from Rockstar’s nearly-three-year-old Manhunt were shown). Okay, so … Read More»

Short Research Proposal On Fear Of Crime

interviews compared to other qualitative methods in order to research fear of crime among young men aged between 18-25 in inner London. My primary objective is to find out to what extent do young men aged 18-25 living in inner London fear crime. Altogether there are three main types of qualitative data; they are in … Read More»

Sex Differences In The Brain Psychology Essay

amounts of researches. According to a few researches (Leonard et al., 2009), not much has been researched to show a sex difference in terms of behavioural. While many or some still believe that women and men think and act the same, there are actually some differences in each other’s brains that show otherwise. According to … Read More»

Several Stages Of Individual Development Psychology Essay

The development of an individual undergoes several stages of development, which change and replace one another respectively to the cognitive development of the individual. At the same time, the development of individual psychology and personality has been a subject to heat debates between specialists for a long time. In this regard, Piaget’s developmental theory played … Read More»

Several Definitions Of Good Job Satisfaction Psychology Essay

When we use the phrase “job satisfaction” it means one’s positive feelings and thinking about his job. It includes his feelings about all the aspects of the job such as monetary aspects like salary and earnings and also mentally aspects like the environment of the job, coworkers behavior, the social level of the job and … Read More»

Self Talk In Physical Education Psychology Essay

Almost ninety-six percent of adults talk to themselves engaging in what is called internal dialogue, inner speech, self-statement, inner conversation, subvocal speech, self-verbalizations, or self-talk (Winsler, 2009). These concepts of internalization vary from theory to theory (Guerrero, 2005; Larrain & Haye, 2012) playing a key role in human processes and self-regulation (Meichenbaum, 1977; Berk, 1992). … Read More»

Self Efficacy In Writing Performance Psychology Essay

Writing, is a complex process and competent writing is frequently accepted as being the last language skill to be acquired. Al-Mekhlafi, 2011 Due to its complex process, writing is regarded as a challenging task not only for native speakers of a language but also for second language learners. As it is the case for any … Read More»

Self efficacy and perceived academic performance of students

The topic we have selected for our research paper is ‘To study the influence of Academic Locus of Control & Academic Self efficacy on Perceived Academic Performance of Management students’. More accurately, it is intended to study the effect of Academic Locus of control of an individual on his/her academic performance taking Academic Self efficacy … Read More»

Selection and assessment methods used in work organisations

Selection and assessment techniques play a vital role in the recruitment of individuals. The contemporary world of work has been ever changing, creating room for personnel re-organisation and staff turnover. Since, the idea of working in the same organisation for life has become out-dated, people tend to polish themselves and their careers by switching jobs, … Read More»

School Counselors in the Role of Reducing Bullying

School counselors continue to be leaders in developing classroom guidance lessons that identify ways to recognize types of bullying and strategies to reduce bullying in schools. This paper will define bullying, the history of bulling, and discuss the five types of bullying that school counselor’s encounter daily. The impact of youth bullying will also be … Read More»

Schizophrenia illustrated in the film a beautiful mind

Historical descriptions of mental illnesses and individuals experiencing psychopathic symptoms have been documented since classical times. Behavioural conditions that imitated schizophrenic symptoms existed from ancient Greece, Rome, and the Middle Ages (Jeste et al, 1985, cited in Walker et al, 2004). Schizophrenia gained recognition at the start of the twentieth century, when Bleuler renamed ‘dementia … Read More»

SAS HR system

system and people policies that make the company successful? What type of role does the HR function play; in other words, does HR play an important role? Human Resource (HR) functions and people policies play an important role in success of SAS. According to the information available on the company’s website, HR in the organization … Read More»

Romantic Relationship And Young Adulthood Psychology Essay

Romantic relationship can be characterised by a free will between two individuals to interact and associate together with special connection for each other. Romantic relationships between two individuals is a personal choice, hence the relationship could be tenuous. One major component of falling in relationship can be identified as attraction between two individuals which is … Read More»

Review Of Trauma Symptom Inventory Psychology Essay

The Trauma Symptom Inventory (TSI) was created by Briere, J. in 1995, and appears in the “Trauma Symptom Inventory Professional Manual.” The test is also featured in “Psychological Assessment Resources, Briere, et al., (1995). The test exists in form of manuals, ten item booklets, and twenty-five scorable answer sheets, with 25 each for female and … Read More»

Returning to sport after long term injury

process (Podlog & Eklund, 2006). An athlete’s journey back to sport and their response to injury and the rehabilitation process has been investigated by multiple studies (Bianco, Malo, & Orlick, 1999; Podlog, & Eklund, 2007; Weiss, 2003), which have resulted in finding that successfull rehabilitation for an athlete will not only focus on the physical … Read More»

Responding to congruent stimuli quicker than incongruent stimuli

This experiment was conducted to prove that an individual responds to congruent stimuli quicker than they would to incongruent stimuli. The hypothesis was proven wrong when it the experiment showed that the participants responded quicker to the incongruent stimuli rather than the congruent stimuli. The participants took part in the experiment via a computer at … Read More»

Residential and Commercial Design

and supervised. Commercial design addresses the issues concerning the choices of building materials, plumbing and power systems, the layout and placement of interior walls, and the coordination of communications with the owners, construction professionals and the service providers. Residential design refers to the designing of people’s homes. The residential design fits the functions of a … Read More»

Research Strategy Justification Of Methodology Psychology Essay

The following chapter initially provides a brief insight by discussing few research approaches and philosophies, which were considered during the literature review. The second section of the chapter will compare different research methodologies. Different opinions from writers are presented and critically compared to provide the reader with sound knowledge about quantitative, qualitative and mixed methodologies. … Read More»

Research on work family conflict and well being

Researchers have focused on the concept of WFC in some form for the past 40 years, dating back to Kahn, Wolfe, Quinn, Snoek, and Rosenthal (1964). WFC was originally conceptualized as a one-dimensional, bidirectional construct, meaning that it referred to both the influence of work on family and the influence of family on work as … Read More»

Research on sexual satisfaction and marital happiness

Nowadays, dissolution of marriage has undoubtedly become a major social predicament in America in view of the mushrooming divorce rate now at 50 percent. What is more disconcerting is that children fall victims to a host of emotional, mental, psychological, and academic maladies before and after parental separation. Because of this stark reality, investigators have … Read More»

Research on person centered expressive arts therapy

Art has been used for thousands of years as a means of communication. However, according to Edwards (2004) it was not until the 1940’s that art, psychiatry and psychoanalysis combined in a variety of ways to provide the conditions out of which the profession of art therapy emerged (19). Art therapy is a psychotherapeutic approach … Read More»

Research Methodology is a procedural framework

Research has been defined as ‘systematic and sustained enquiry planned and self critical which is subject to public criticism. The research is also subject to empirical tests where appropriate and where these are not appropriate, critical discourse will appeal to the judgment of evidence, documents, observation and records (Stenhouse L. 1971). According to Marshall (1995), … Read More»

Research Method For Big Five Personality Project Psychology Essay

Research methodology is an orderly approach and systematic way to solve a research problem. It is used for the collection and analysis of data. The research methodology is planned, scientific and value-neutral. It is a science of studying how research is to be carried out. Essentially, the procedures by which researchers go about their work … Read More»

Research into the history of klinefelters syndrome

Many chromosomal abnormalities occur early in development and involve the sex chromosomes. Klinefelter’s Syndrome falls directly into this category. Klinefelter’s Syndrome is a genetic condition affecting the male population. The following information observes who discovered Klinefelter’s Syndrome and when it was first diagnosed. The etiology or genetic and environmental factors of the condition are discussed … Read More»

Research In Regard To Shoplifting Psychology Essay

In critically reviewing the research in regard to shoplifting done by the security manager, a definition of research will be stated and the following aspects will be analysed and critiqued. Initially, throughout the essay the manager would be complemented for taking the initiative to conduct a research founded on a concern to deal with shoplifting, … Read More»

Research Design Location And Research Time Psychology Essay

This chapter will present the methodological approach and research technique used in this thesis along with how the data will be gathered to find the answer or solutions of the research questions and problems, such as research design, theoretical perspective, data collection method, data analysis method as well as the validity and reliability of the … Read More»

Research design and philosophy

research questions to data. Undertaking a social evaluation of such magnitude requires thorough consideration of various research paradigms as well as ontology and epistemology which provide understanding of the social world and consider the perception of and assumptions about reality thus affecting the way this social research is undertaken. Furthermore, exactly these aspects of truth … Read More»

Reliability, Practicality, and Validity level of the entrance exam

Abstract The purpose of this study is to reveal the reliability, practicality, and validity level of the entrance exam for the teacher training program at National Institute of Education in Cambodia and to measure the knowledge of the student and test when they did the examination in 2010. This study employed documentary interviews from the … Read More»

Reliability of eyewitness testimony in adults and children

Eyewitness testimony can be defined as the evidence given by an individual in court about people and events of a crime. Eyewitnesses testify about many things, for example, the identification of a perpetrator, which hand a gunman used, the colour of a car, or even recollections of a conversation (Wells & Olsen, 2003). Comprehensive psychological … Read More»

Relevance of mindfulness to developing interpersonal skills

Mindfulness as a psychological concept can be conceptualised as a present centred, non elaborative and non judgemental awareness in which all of the individual’s sensations, feelings and thoughts that are present in their field of attention is taken account of and accepted (Bishop et al, 2004). Hargie (2006) states that behaviour that an individual pursues … Read More»

Relationships Between Parenting Style And Self Reliance Psychology Essay

A search of literature in Malaysia has revealed a gap in knowledge of measurement among student in University Putra Malaysia (UPM) student’s parenting style on personal and self-reliance. The relationships between parenting style and self-reliance for Asian Adolescent may be challenging question in a multi-racial country where parenting style typology has been one of the … Read More»

Relationship between the primary caregiver and the infant

When looking at infant and childhood attachment from a biopsychosocial perspective, there are several implications for a child’s psychological development as well as future interpersonal relationships. First, it is necessary to examine the relationship between the primary caregiver and the infant. Caregivers that provide comfort, nurturing and are attuned to the infants’ needs help infants … Read More»

Relationship between the mind and the brain

prolific of the minds has wandered sleeplessly, trying to solve the mind-brain problem, yet, the mysteries behind our skulls remain hidden. This paper is an attempt to address the causality problem of the mind and the brain. Firstly, an overview over the philosophical theories will be done. Subsequently, evaluation of certain scientific findings which may … Read More»

Relationship between dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex

The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is an essential aspect of the frontal lobes in the brain. Executive function is carried out by the prefrontal cortex: where abilities to differentiate among conflicting thoughts and to determine what is good or bad operate. The PFC is connected very compactly with the rest of the brain which allows the … Read More»

Reflection and Self-Assessment

influence of alcohol. A randomised control trial found out that drink driving offenders that received MI had lower rates of drink driving in the future as compared to those that received other counselling approaches (Stein et al., 2006). MI is “a client-centred directive method for enhancing intrinsic motivation to change by exploring and resolving ambivalence” … Read More»

Reason behind sleepwalking and reducing the disorder

This paper explains the reasons behind the occurrences and effects of sleepwalking as well as highlighting the methods to minimize this sleep disorder. Sleepwalking does little harm to the sleepwalkers, however, if the disorder persists, potential harm can be created. Hence, in order to reduce the occurrence of sleepwalking and possible harm it has been … Read More»

Raymond Cattells Theories Of Intelligence Psychology Essay

Raymond Bernard Cattell was a British and American psychologist known for his exploration of areas like the basic dimensions of personality and temperament, a range of cognitive abilities, the clinical dimensions of personality, patterns of group and social behavior and many more. He was born in 1905 in Hilltop, a small town near Birmingham, England. … Read More»

Qualitative Measures Of Verbal Fluency Psychology Essay

There has been no common consensus among researchers regarding the best scoring and interpretation procedure for the verbal fluency task. This review provides a summary of various systems of qualitative scoring measures employed by investigators for deeper understanding of verbal fluency performance. Some of the qualitative measures include clustering and switching analysis, method of hierarchical … Read More»

Psychological research studies

developed solely through a process of learning via experience. These pinnacle ‘ Abstract Domestic violence is the act of harassing an intimate or prior intimate. Domestic violence is a widespread problem throughout the world with woman and children being the most at risk. Most abusers suffer from various personality disorders ranging from paranoid personality disorder … Read More»

Psychological reasons and effects of phobia amongst children

A phobia is a persistent, abnormal and often irrational fear of particular activity, thing, situation or even person. Phobias are not uncommon in children and can be managed. However, critical attention has to be paid to a child so as to determine the cause of the phobia and to assist in the selection of the … Read More»

Psychological Manipulation Different Techniques Psychology Essay

Psychological manipulation is like brain washing in that it wears away the victim’s self-confidence, sense of self-worth, trust in their own perceptions, and self-concept. Whichever way it is done, the results will be fairly similar. Eventually, the recipient of the abuse loses all sense of self and the final remaining vestiges of personal value. Psychological manipulation … Read More»

Psychodynamic Theory Founded By Sigmund Freud Psychology Essay

The following essay will analyse the Psychodynamic theory founded by Sigmund Freud. It will focus on the components of the mind including the Conscious, the pre-conscious proper and the Unconscious. It will then examine his contribution into the structure of Personality with reference to The’ Id’, ‘Ego’ and ‘Super-ego’. Following this, the essay will discuss … Read More»

Psychobiological Interventions To Improve Endurance Performance Psychology Essay

Psychobiology (also known as behavioural neuroscience) is the study of the biology of behaviour. In this subject, behaviour is explained as a result of complex chemical reactions and biological events within the brain. Psychobiology studies the role of biological factors in sensation, perception, learning, memory and language. A study by Hamilton-West (2011) explores that the … Read More»

Psychoanalysis Of Gordon Gekko Psychology Essay

The paper will describe a character, Gordon Gekko from Wall Street (Edwin & Stone, 1987) from a psychoanalytic perspective of Dr. Sigmund Freud. This paper will pair several quotes of Gordon Gekko with the appropriate perceived diagnosed disorder. In particular, this will illustrate Gekko’s two personality disorders: Antisocial Personality Disorder and the Narcissistic Personality Disorder. … Read More»

Principles of operant conditioning reinforcement and punishment

Operant conditioning is based upon the idea that learning is a function of change in overt behavior. The changes in behavior are the result of an individual’s response to events (stimuli) that occur in the environment. A response produces a consequence such as defining a word, hitting a ball, or solving a math problem (Myers, … Read More»

Presented With The Complaints Of Depression Psychology Essay

The purpose of this case study is to describe the case of a patient known as Ellen Farber. Ms. Farber, an insurance company executive, arrived at a psychiatric emergency room at a university hospital with numerous complaints in regard to her overall well-being. It is apparent that Ms. Farber has been affected by her symptoms … Read More»

Prefrontal Cortex The Very Front Of The Brain Psychology Essay

The Prefrontal Cortex is the very front of the brain, located right beneath the forehead and is the anterior region of the frontal lobe. The prefrontal cortex is a very important area in the brain and is the most susceptible to injury. The prefrontal cortex is responsible for the functions of decision making, whether right … Read More»

Post Positivism History And Philosophy Psychology Essay

According to Cheek (2008, pp. 762-766) research design refers to the combination of three important and interrelated considerations requiring focused attention when formulating and conducting research; the theoretical foundations guiding research, data collection and analysis methods, as well as ethical concerns. Theoretical frameworks essentially provide a lens through which to examine and conduct research. Inherent … Read More»

Possible Bias In The Bentley Music Test Psychology Essay

This study investigated the widely employed Bentley Music Test and the possibility of bias towards prior musical experience, gender or age. Specifically, this study sought to determine if there were any significant predictor variables for the outcome of the Bentley Music Test. This study illuminated potential bias using gender , age, parent/guardian musical experience and … Read More»

Positivism Philosophy With A Deductive Approach Psychology Essay

The methodology of this research will follow a positivism philosophy in an effort to collect data from an observable reality and find similarities in the data collected to make them generalizable to other researchers theories (Remenyi et al. 1998, cited in Saunders, 2009, p.144). Gill and Johnson (2002, pp.39-40) add that the use of positivism … Read More»

Positive Attitude Towards Job Psychology Essay

Job satisfaction in regards to ones feeling or state of mind regarding nature of their work. Job can be influenced by variety of factors like quality of ones relationship with their supervisor, quality of physical environment in which they work, degree of fulfillment in their work, etc. Positive attitude towards job are equivalent to job … Read More»

Positive and negative arguments for Scientist Practitioner model

The Scientist-Practitioner model has become the most prevalent and favoured training model for clinical psychologists (see Kanfer, 1990; Page, 1996). I will argue that despite there being (seemingly) far more negative arguments for this model that the scientist practitioner model is not ‘out-dated’ and still has a lot to offer. In order to do this, … Read More»

Piaget underestimated childrens cognitive abilities in his theory

Piaget’s developmental theory is based on four stages on the child’s development. The first is the Sensori motor stage which is from birth to two years. This is when an infant differentiates itself from objects. The infant also have no object permanence. The infant demonstrates simple reflexes from the first habits, up to the coordination … Read More»

Piagets theory underestimated childrens cognitive abilities

Piaget believed in cognitive development and that there are three principles involved. Accommodation, which is the process of adapting cognitive schemes (a structured or organized way of understanding experiences, this changes as you get older) for viewing the world. The second assimilation, is the process of interpreting experiences when we use current schemes to create … Read More»

Physical vs Emotional Motivation of Virginity Loss

The emotional and physical influences behind the transition from virgin to non-virgin status amongst African American youth will be explored in this study. The subjects consist of 22 college students (18 – 25 years old) attending Prairie View A&M University in Prairie View, Texas. Each participant was first provided full disclosure, and informed that the … Read More»

Physical Activity and Academic Achievement

Abstract The purpose of this study was to determine whether those that schedule regular exercise into their lifestyles achieve greater academic success overall. To do so, scores on the Graduate Record Examination (GRE) test were compared before the participants worked out to the scores after the students worked out regularly for three weeks. Participants were … Read More»

Psychology Essays – perspective on personality

This essay will begin by giving a description of what personality is, before going on to critically evaluate trait and type approaches of personality. The precise definition of personality has been a controversial issue over many years by various theorists. One definition of personality can be described as the underlying causes of individual behaviour and … Read More»

Personal theory of counseling using a case study

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the writer’s personal theory of psychotherapy, which was developed from the amalgamation of aspects of several generally accepted theories. The application of this theory will be done using the case of Stan. According to Prochaska & Norcross (2003), “psychotherapy is the informed and intentional application of clinical … Read More»

Personality Traits What Extent It Affects Employees Performance Psychology Essay

There are two approaches to personality: nomothetic and idiographic. The nomothetic approach presumes that personality is inherited and environmental factors don’t play a high role (Buchanan, Huczynski, (2010). pp. 174). This approach takes a number of variables into account while studying personality such as traits (Iverson Software Co., 2006). This is on the nature side … Read More»

Personality in operant conditioning and social cognitive learning

B.F. Skinner (1904-1990) and Albert Bandura (b. 1925) play an important role in the field of learning in psychology, their theory are useful to understand one’s behavior, The theory that developed by Skinner is operant conditioning, and Bandura developed the theory of social learning theory. Even though both theories are focused on behavior of an … Read More»

Personality defined as a consistent behavior pattern

What is Personality? Figure : Six approaches to Personality”Personality can be defined as consistent behavior pattern and intrapersonal processes originating within the individual” (Burger, 2008, p. 4). But this being said, there is no single answer how to describe human personality. Personality theorists have different ideas and point out different ways to explain personality. According … Read More»

Personality And Intelligence Concepts Are Closely Related Psychology Essay

Personality and intelligence concepts are closely related. Personality describes a set of character traits that are measurable, and it is the supreme of the inmate psychology of a living being (Carver and Scheier, 2000). Intelligence on the other hand, is one of supporting elements of personality, and it supports components of personality thus sometimes considered … Read More»

Personal Financial Wellness And Workers Job Productivity Psychology Essay

This chapter will elaborate on the personal financial wellness and workers job productivity. Financial matters are related to all aspects of personal and family life. Researchers have done some investigations for years about the financial matters and their impacts on personal and family life. Over the past years they have examined both objective and subjective … Read More»

Perception and Individual Decision Making

individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment. However, what one perceives can be substantially different from objective reality. People’s behavior is based on their perception of what reality is, not on reality itself. Perceptions have implications for the following in an organization: employment interview, performance expectations, performance … Read More»

Peoples Formation Of Impressions Psychology Essay

This experiment studied how group membership In-group vs Out-group and Order effects Order A vs Order B – Asch affected peoples formation of impressions. 151 Kingston University Second Year Psychology Undergraduate Students were randomly allocated to one of the four experimental conditions where they completed a response sheet answering two endorsement questions. Participants either viewed … Read More»

Do parenting styles across cultures affect how we are?

Abstract: This research is aiming to inspect how parenting styles can have an influence the temperament of an individual in relation to different cultures and inter-cultures. The participant used for this interview is an 18 year old male, whom is a student at the University of Lincoln studying Law. The participant was of Somali origin, … Read More»

Parental involvement and biopsychosocial well being among children

This chapter will discuss the general picture of this study. Specifically, the chapter includes a general description of the purpose for this study, its relationship to current phenomena, problems related to it and last but not least, the reason this topic needs to be investigated. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship … Read More»

Overview On Schizophrenia: Disorder Of The Mind

Schizophrenia has plagued humankind since the early centuries. The bible mentions of paranoia and manic rage in several books, but personally, my favorite is found in the book of Psalms. “He who dwells in the shelter of the Most High will abide in the shadow of the Almighty. I will say to the Lord, “My … Read More»

Ostracism In The Presence Of Psychological Capital Psychology Essay

Ostracism is the perception of being ignored or excluded by other employees in a workplace Ferris, Brown, Berry Lian, 2008. ostracism is basically defined as being ignored or excluded by other employees without explanation and intense negative intention ostracism does not provide employees an opportunity for social interaction which is necessary for the fulfillment of … Read More»

ontological and epistemological assumptions of the survey method

Inquiry paradigms, the basic belief systems or world views of the researcher frame the course of research and its outcomes. According to Guba (1990), paradigms can be characterised through their: ontology (What is reality?), epistemology (How do you know something?) and methodology (How do go about finding out?). Qualitative and quantitative research methods are underpinned … Read More»

One Approach Cant Explain All Human Behaviour Psychology Essay

Psychology is the scientific study of how humans and animals behave. There are different approaches to psychology that gives a varied insight to human behaviour based on different features which makes it insufficient for one to explain all aspect of human behaviour. The Behaviourist believes that a change in behaviour is due to individual’s respond … Read More»

Occupational Stress And Coping: Age And Gender Differences

The topics of stress and coping have received widespread attention in the professional literature and popular press. This widespread attention is due to the fact that excess stress has been known to have harmful effects on an individual’s physical and mental state. Moreover, stress has been a common factor affecting all aspects of life including … Read More»

Obsessions and compulsions in pakistani community of adults

Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is an Anxiety Disorder, the core features of OCD are obsessions and compulsions. According to DSM-IV-TR, obsessions are recurrent and persistent intrusive thoughts, images, or impulses that enter the mind of individual for no apparent reason, and are experienced as disturbing and inappropriate (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). People who have such … Read More»

observing smoking reducing stress and anxiety

To observe either smoking reduces stress and anxiety. Like mostly smokers said that when they are under stress or anxiety and they smoke a cigarette then their stress relieved and they feel fresh and relaxed. In my research I would like to find either this is true or not. To observe person’s psychological condition with … Read More»

NTIC Students Perceptions Of Homeless People Psychology Essay

Homeless is a serious problem that society has not eliminated and history shows that at times of economic difficulty the situation of homelessness becomes worse. Across Europe more people have become homeless and are excluded from society. Research indicates that society’s perception of homeless people can affect how much help they receive. This research undertook … Read More»

Nature Vs Nurture Twins Studies Psychology Essay

This question will simply not disappear. And by no surprise in reality, it asks whether humans are free to behave as they want or whether their actions are encoded in them. In its modern nature, this controversial debate is based on terms of molecular genetics. Is the way we behave depended on gene structure, or … Read More»

Nature Of Online Dating And Relationships Psychology Essay

Early research on Internet self-efficacy focused on the performance of specific tasks such as entering World-Wide Web addresses, creating folders and bookmarks, mailing pages, using File Transfer Protocol (FTP) and telnet, constructing a hypertext index, and moving bookmarks (Nahl, 1996, 1997). Ren (1999) reported a measure of self-efficacy specific to searching for government information sources. … Read More»

Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder

and you’re still tired? Or that you were told that you had talked during your sleep? Maybe you’re having sleep disorders. Sleep disorders can be related to mental conditions, physical conditions or substance inducement. There are about seventy different sleep disorders which are divided into two categories. One category comprises disorders in which a person … Read More»

Music Therapy And Personality Theory Psychology Essay

“Personality theory is focused on the thoughts, feelings and behaviour of human beings, including their interactions with their social environment” (Funder, 1994). From this comment it could be suggested that personality is made up of the characteristic patterns of thoughts, feelings and behaviours that make a person unique. In addition to this, Piedmont supports that … Read More»

Music And The Brain Psychology Essay

known as music, it is a measured pattern of our time and it is also the glue that sticks our life together. Music has the ability to ease a savage beast, it is been discovered, by researchers that these charms work through the brain. Music is a widely known language and people are hard-wired to … Read More»

Motivational factors that encourage volunteers

Non-profit organizations rely on volunteer workers to fulfill many of their day-today functions. Without a volunteer workforce, many organizations would simply cease to exist. It is vital that we understand what inspires people to provide their services without the desire for monetary compensation. This study was conducted with the volunteers at a Non-Profit Organization. This … Read More»

Moral Development During The Adolescent Years Psychology Essay

Moral development during the adolescent years can be defined as the way young people learn to decide what is right and wrong, which in turn forms the basis of their principles of justice. Influences of morality on adolescents have been focused on moral cognitions and socialisation agents, principally parental influences, as contributed by cognitive developmental … Read More»

Money Attitude Your Money Psychology Psychology Essay

Most people tend to think that being into the latest fashion is important or going with the most popular items in entertainment is important rather than saving. For instance, I have a family member who seems to be constantly struggling to make ends meet, but once he gets a large amount of money what does … Read More»

Models of addiction requiem for a dream

Where Pi’s Max Cohen followed his mathematical obsession into insanity and self-destruction, Requiem now shows us the decline and fall of four individuals, Sara (Ellen Burstyn), Harry (Jared Leto), Marion (Jennifer Connelly), and Tyrone (Marlon Wayans). Sara gets hooked on diet pills, and her son, Harry, his girlfriend, Marion, and his buddy Tyrone are all … Read More»

Milgrams studies on obedience and the ethical problems

This essay is going to look at Milgram’s studies into obedience and then look at the ethical issues that have a risen from this type of study. First and foremost to understand why studies like this were even under taken you have to know how obedience is defined. Obedience is defined in most all dictionaries … Read More»

Methods of measuring stress and their effectiveness

Firstly introduced by Hans Selye (1950), the term stress is more used to describe an individual’s state of tension which is often seen as being related to modern life. However, stress assessment is made using different method which includes: Self report Biomedical Physiological Self report: Life events (Holmes and Rahe 1976) The most common way … Read More»

Methodology The purpose of research

academic research projects and management tool (Veal 2006). It is a useful tool to understand the purpose of this report in this study. A purpose of a research project can shape the choice of topic and the subsequent research design (Veal 2006). The purpose of this research is to analysis the travel motivations and travel … Read More»

Methodology Of Cyberbullying Studies Psychology Essay

According to Dooley, Pyzalski, & Cross (2009, p.182), to date, many authors face difficulties in defining and comparing cyberbullying because of the use of different methods. (No Flow from reason of different method to definition) Cyberbullying has been from a general perspective defined as bullying through an electronic means. Drawing from Smith et al. (2008, … Read More»

Methodological Critique

The literature on organizational memory has grown steadily since Walsh and Ungson’s (1991) systematic exposition of the concept. This review concentrates on a limited range of articles following Walsh and Ungson from the major journals in management and organization theory that focus on organizational memory (Anand, Manz, and Glick, 1998; Cohen and Bacdayan, 1994; Kyriakopoulos … Read More»

Method of Constant Stimuli

(UT) from the obtained graph: UT = 104.2 Estimate of the lower threshold (LT) from the obtained graph: LT = 98.5 Estimate of the interval of uncertainty (IU) from the obtained graph: IU = upper threshold – lower threshold, which in this case is: 104.2 – 98.5 = 5.7. Therefore the IU = 5.7 Question … Read More»

Merits And Demerits Of Qualitative And Quantitative Procedures Psychology Essay

Research methods are “technique(s) for gathering data” (Harding, 1986) and are generally dichotomized into being either quantitative or qualitative. It has been argued that methodology has been gendered (Oakley, 1998), with quantitative methods traditionally being associated with words such as positivism, scientific, objectivity, statistics and masculinity. In contrast, qualitative methods have generally been associated with … Read More»

Mental Health And Disability Psychology Essay

daily life activities for a period of more than twelve months (Thomas, 2010). Therefore disability encompasses many conditions and it can be subdivided into further four subgroups, which are physical, psychological, cognitive and social disorders (Thomas, 2010). Consequently it is important to understand the social aspects that are brought about by disability, since the vast … Read More»

Mental Disorders and Crime

realizes his or her own potential, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to her or his community.¿½ A mental disorder on the other hand, is a clinically psychological or behavioural disease associated with distress or disability that occurs in an individual, … Read More»

Memory Test For Positive And Negative Words Psychology Essay

In the subject of Word Memory, many different types of researches have been done in the past. In many of these researches we can find that many different factors affect the way we remember some words. Examples of different factors are familiarity, imageability, arousal, and valence. In this particular study we took a look at … Read More»

Media Multitasking

Looking at Media Multitasking in Today’s Youth Media Multitasking A recent publication by the Kaiser Family Foundation (Foehr, 2006) sought to determine prevalence, predictors and pairings of media multitasking in today’s youth. Media multitasking as described throughout the article and this paper can be defined as using different media simultaneously. Foehr explains that it is … Read More»

Media Coverage Of Terrorism Psychological Impact Psychology Essay

This research report concerns the psychological impact resulting from the media coverage of terrorism. the report focuses on the impact on school going children of Pakistan. In this report this relationship will be studied in the light of present literature. The present literature indicates an association between television viewing and symptoms of Post Traumatic Stress. … Read More»

Main Approaches Studying Human Cognition Psychology Essay

Human cognition has been scientifically approached by the Cognitive Science as its main target and Experimental Cognitive Psychology is the first approach of Cognitive Science to get evaluated in this essay. It started focussing in cognitive processes with the systematic and scientific approach of Behaviourism but in contrast to it taking into account internal processes … Read More»

Looking At Tax Knowledge Psychology Essay

of literature, review of relevant theoretical models, proposed conceptual framework, hypotheses development and conclusion. Firstly, review of the literature outlines the past literatures and their methodologies as well as findings that are relevant to the constructs are reviewed. Following by the review of relevant theoretical models, researchers have to review the past literature to determine … Read More»

Look At Causal Comparative Research Psychology Essay

Causal-comparative research design can be defined as a research that permits researchers to study naturally occurring, cause and effect relationship through comparison of data from participant groups who exhibit the variables of interest. Causal-comparative research can also be referred to as ex post facto, Latin for “after the fact” (Sowell, 2001). In other words, causal-comparative … Read More»

Logic Of Confidence Intervals And Hypothesis Testing Psychology Essay

What is the importance associated with each of the following: levels of significance and the power of the test in the statistical inference? Articulate a research problem and develop a research question in your field of interest. Insofar as your question should require you to test a statistical hypothesis, state the null and alternative hypothesis … Read More»

Logical Division Of Ideas Fear Psychology Essay

Agoraphobia is the condition in which anxiousness is felt by an individual when one is running from problems which may humiliate them. The sufferer of agoraphobia might experience fear in a crowded place, while home alone, on a public transportation, etc. Therefore they try to avoid crowded place and rarely socialize with people. They feel … Read More»

Literature review on the effectiveness of group therapy

This chapter presents a review of some of the major theoretical approaches, which attempt to examine the effectiveness of therapy of group and family contribution in the treatment process. Thus we will look at, existing studies and support on group therapy as an effective method of treatment, and, family contribution to a substance addict individual, … Read More»

Literature review on stress and the rugby union

The chapter will explain topics related to this study. Firstly rugby union will be briefly described to outline the nature of the game then the definition, theories, and measurers of stress, arousal, anxiety and confidence will be explained and their impacts on performance. Finally a summary as to why all the concepts have been discussed, … Read More»

Link between smoking and eysencks personality dimensions

The investigation sets out to discover whether or not personality types such as extroversion-introversion, introduced by that of Carl Jung, play any role in individuals taking up smoking. Looking at which out of the two personality dimension are more prone to nicotine consumption and if either of the personality dimensions have a link to impulsiveness, … Read More»

Link Between School Violence And Bullying Psychology Essay

School shootings seem to be the new type of youth violence that is sweeping across the nation. This new trend has an eerie way of turning a school, which should be a safe haven for children, into a battlefield. Stories of troubled children turning to guns to make a statement or to get back at … Read More»

Life-Span Development: From Birth to Death

during each state of the life-span will have an impact on how subsequent stages are experienced for better or for worse. The following is a concise overview of the changes and normative patterns relating to the life-span. Thus, the discussion will provide a brief examination of each phase, including the prenatal, infancy, early childhood, middle … Read More»

Levels of processing and recall performance

Abstract Previous studies had tested the use of different rehearsal strategies on recall. There are conflicting theories as to which strategy is most effective. This experiment was an attempt to explore the effects of memory processing using definition strategy and first letter strategy. The report analyzes the strongest recall procedure in remembering wordlists. A total … Read More»

Learning And Causes Of Procrastination Psychology Essay

Learning is relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior due to experience. According to Segment Freud child’s personality is built within 6 years. And if during those six years the child is taught procrastination through observation it will go on All through his life and he will keep on delaying all his work without considering … Read More»

Karl Popper’s notion of falsifiability

at theLondon School of Economics. He is known as one of the greatestphilosophers of science of the 20th century. He has written extensively on social and political philosophy. Falsifiability, as defined by the philosopher,Karl Popper, defines the inherenttestabilityof any scientifichypothesis. In its basic form, falsifiability is the belief that for any hypothesis to have credibility, … Read More»

Justify the methods and processes

which are examined while the research is carried out. It consists of process model, research approach, research design, research method, data collection etc. Data Collection Research Approach Research Design Literature Review Research Questions Formulation Research Undertaking Primary Secondary Inductive Deductive Explanatory Exploratory Descriptive Semi-Structured Open ended Interview Semi Structured Questionnaires Data Analysis Results/Conclusion Source: Authors … Read More»

Job Satisfaction And Quality Of Work Life Psychology Essay

Job satisfaction and quality of work life go hand in hand when talked about real satisfaction since one is the outcome of other .The present paper attempts to examine the impact of job satisfaction and its attribute on quality of work life of employees working in management colleges in Faridabad region The basic objective of … Read More»

Job Insecurity And Outcomes Psychology Essay

“Job insecurity is a condition wherein employees lack the assurance that their jobs will remain stable from day to day, week to week, or year to year.  Depending on the discipline and political leanings of authors, job insecurity can be referenced in a variety of ways.  For instance, “boundary less careers,” “flexibility,” “new employer-employee contracts,” … Read More»

Issues arising from selective attention at the workplace

To people, events and objects that we meet in our daylight lives are roughly unwavering complex and comprehensive. Any given incentive is possible to posses numerous ascribes, and our appraisal of the stimulus may be contingent on which characteristics we focus on in our decision making. What we hear, see, feel and remember vary not … Read More»

IQ Tests Do They Measure Intelligence Psychology Essay

This paper is on “IQ Test”. The paper explains how the IQ test is being used all over the world and for what purposes. It explains the meaning of the term “IQ”. Moreover it explains the tools that have been used to measure intelligence through the IQ Test. It also gives the history and invention … Read More»

IQ Tests Are Not An Accurate Measure Psychology Essay

IQ testing is very limited. They do not see how people view things. While someone may be bright personality, they may not be easy to decorate ADEPT sunset well. They can postulate ADEPT idea of space, but so vague they can not pass on dialogue more than a couple of seconds. Their brains can really … Read More»

In vivo exposure in behavioral therapy

object or situation in “real life” with no danger involved. Throughout the exposure process the therapist comforts the client in order to reduce their anxiety. Unlike flooding, exposure therapies differ in that they don’t start at the highest level of fear (Corey, 2009, 247). According to Corey one of the hallmarks of in vivo exposure … Read More»

Investigation Of Students Personality And Attitude Psychology Essay

Personality has been identified as being an important contributing factor in development of students’ attitude towards Chemistry. The purpose of current study is to examine the influence of Personality on students’ attitude towards Chemistry. The study also determine the effect of Age, Gender, Family Type, Class, School Sector, Father Qualification, Mother Qualification, Choice Of Course … Read More»

Investigating Youngs Double Slit Experiment

Isaac Newton, argued that light was in fact a particle. On the contrary, a scientist by the name of Thomas Young argued that light was not a particle but that it was a wave. To go along with his argument he devised an experiment to test his theory. Young performed his famous double slit experiment … Read More»

Investigating The Generation Effect Phenomenon Psychology Essay

Norman J. Slamecka has developed experiments to investigate The Generation Effect phenomenon, which suggests that information might be better remembered / recalled if this information is generated. For example, if an individual is subjected into generating the word “party” from APRTY, the person will be more likely to recall the words instead of if that … Read More»

Investigating Emotional Intelligence Level Of Aggression Psychology Essay

This study has explored links between emotional intelligence, aggression level and coping strategies, as well as the variables contribute during students academic life. In this study, it is sought to hypostasise three variables (1) students with low Emotional Intelligence level will have a prediction of higher level of Aggression (2) students with higher level of … Read More»

Introduction The History Of Schizophrenia Psychology Essay

Schizophrenia from the Greek word (schizo) means split and (phrenia) means mind is a psychiatric disorder characterised by positive, negative and cognitive dysfunctions (Andreasen, 1997; Meltzer, 1999a, b; Meltzer et al., 1999; Weinberger and Gallhofer, 1997). These symptoms are characterized by delusions, hallucinations, loss of abstract thinking and difficulty to differentiate between reality and fantasy. … Read More»

Interpersonal Relationships And Understanding Its Development Psychology Essay

do not necessarily reflect the views of UK Essays. Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp   Interpersonal relationships develop daily throughout the world and have occurred throughout history. An individual must have the basic understanding of the individual’s needs in which they are trying to connect with. In order to do this the individual must understand how others see them … Read More»

Instincts in humans

some stimuli. These stimuli can occur through environmental interaction or through learning. Human’s instincts are mostly witnessed in human behaviors which include sexual activation and human emotions. Instincts occur as a result of stimuli which trigger certain behaviors. These behaviors are predetermined by natural and environment setups. Instincts are innate/ unlearned. The patterns of the … Read More»

Influence Of The Peer Group On The Adolescent Psychology Essay

The adolescent is a stage in which the individuals are more concerned about how they appear to other people. According to Erikson, during successful early adolescent development, the young people acquire the self-confidence as opposed to self- disbelief and self-consciousness (Susman, et al., 1992). As the adolescent develops, they start to experiment on both constructive … Read More»

Individual Behavior And Thought In Social Situations Psychology Essay

Social psychology is a field that is interested in a variety of social processes. Social psychology is defined as the scientific field that seeks to understand the nature and causes of individual behavior and thought in social situations. (Baron, Byrne & Branscome, 2006). It differs from clinical psychology in that clinical psychology has a main … Read More»

Indivdual Differences In Pain Tolerance Psychology Essay

It is generally agreed that the perception of pain does not only depend on the noxious input, but also on a variety of psychological variables including an individual’s emotional state. The amygdala is one area of the brain linked with the regulation of both emotion and pain (Lapate, Lee, Salomons, van Reekum, Grieschar & Davidson, … Read More»

Indicating An Athletes Arousal Levels And Performance Impact Psychology Essay

Arousal is a physiological and psychological state of being awake or reactive to stimuli. It involves the activation of the reticular activating system in the brain stem, the autonomic nervous system and the endocrine system, leading to increased heart rate and blood pressure and a condition of sensory alertness, mobility and readiness to respond. ‘http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arousal’ … Read More»

Incorporating Family Career Genogram

from a traditional family tree as they allow the individual to visualize some hereditary patterns and psychological factors that can interrupt or help relationships. Genograms can also be used to identify recurring patterns of behaviors, choices and identify hereditary tendencies. Normally, genograms will illustrate three generations (Krasner-Khait, 2000). The person can use a variety of … Read More»

Impression Formation using central traits and descriptive categories

20 participants were tested to determine whether there was a noticeable difference in the writing of the descriptions and if this resulted in more correct judgements of the descriptions. Participants were also tested to determine if there was a noticeable change on the impressions formed about aspects of a person because of their type of … Read More»

Importance of understanding personality in psychology

In the field of psychology it is most important to understand the personality of an individual. Personality helps sum up the values, actions, perceptions and behaviour, these can differ from person to person. There are a number of theories that are being used to understand people and have been around for many years, the five … Read More»

Importance of individual differences in understanding behaviour

If you go into any job no matter where you are in the world you will come across a multitude of different personalities and behaviours. An individual’s personality doesn’t just affect the individual, but everyone around them. Organizations consist of people who work together. Differences between individuals based on personality traits, may be an incentive … Read More»

Importance and factors involved in marital adjustment

According to Alfred Adler (1978), marriage is part of the three tasks (i.e., work, friendship, and love) that the human community sets for every individual. Relationship importance Over the course of life, people learn to establish different relationships, with different values, expectations and commitments. One of those relationships is the marital relationship. For A good … Read More»

Implications of attachment theory for adolescent development

Attachment is one of the most intriguing and researched psychological theories in the modern era. Exhaustive research has spanned 50 years and continues. The overview of attachment theory is that it provides an explanation of behaviour exhibited by an infant in relation to their attachment figure (caregiver). This relationship is emotionalised the greatest during the … Read More»

Impact Of Occupational Stress Psychology Essay

The aim of the study was to explore the mediating effects of job satisfaction on role overload and role conflicts as sources of stress and Affective commitment on the other hand. Using questionnaire, 150 banking employees in D.G.Khan were randomly selected and served for the purpose to examined the job satisfaction as the mediating role. … Read More»

Impact of Emotions on an Employees Job Performance

Emotions are pure human psychological phenomena. Employee is critically affected by their behaviors in the workplace. An employee’s emotions and overall temperament have a significant impact on his job performance, decision making skills, team sprit, and leadership and turnover .What employee’s feel and how they express their emotions affects their performance. Emotions directly influence on … Read More»

Identifying stress among UTM students

Introduction Background of Study Stress is the expressive and physical strain caused by our response to pressure from the outside world. Common stress reactions include anxiety, bad temper, inability to concentrate, and a variety of physical symptoms that include headache and a fast heartbeat. It’s almost impossible to live without some stress. (Whitman, 1985) The … Read More»

Hypocrisy: the attitude-behaviour discrepancy

Labour MP and avid socialist campaigner (who criticized Harriet Harman and Tony Blair for sending their children to selective state schools), created controversy when she sent her son to the private City of London School (Swift, 2003). Her actions did not correspond with her expressed attitudes; Diane was acting hypocritically. In general an attitude is … Read More»

Hypnosis as Altered State of Consciousness

studies. The variable examined in the present study is the subjective experience of high hypnotizable individuals. Therefore, this section begins with explaining related concepts to understand the variable studied. 2.1.1 Introduction It is important to define Consciousness, before going to explain hypnosis as altered state of consciousness. Pekala (2009) defines Consciousness as one’s awareness of … Read More»

Hyperactivity And Add Attention Deficit Disorder Psychology Essay

Hyperactivity and A.D.D. Attention Deficit Disorder is a common diagnosed behavioral disorder that begin early in the childhood.Even though considered a childhood disorder once,it is now much more clear that many of the children that has ADHD will continue to have it when become adolescents.While the symptoms decrease as a function of age,impairments like academic,social … Read More»

Human Growth and Development Case Study: Chris

This report will focus on the case study of Chris (appendix I) in which I shall apply my understanding of psychological perspectives of human growth and development, concentrating on my understanding of psychological theories of human behaviour. Erik Erikson Psychosocial Stages (1902 – 1994) Erik Erikson developed eight stages in personality development spanning birth to … Read More»

How useful psychology is in everyday life

for example developmental psychology, clinical psychology, cognitive psychology,psysiological psychology which all have different focus points. Developmental psychology has a focus point on studying the age-related changes which occur in all living beings across the life span. On the otherhand, clinical psychology is more based on finding the causes and treatment of psychological disorders and adjusment … Read More»

How to win friends and influence people by dale carnegie?

How to Win Friends and Influence People by Dale Carnegie In the book “How to Win Friends and Influence People”, author Dale Carnegie shares some of his personal experiences on how to handle people and situations in everyday life as well as the work place. There are many different scenarios and guides provided in utilizing … Read More»

How should we understand human pro social behaviour

Pro-social behaviour can be described as any action that benefits the physical or psychological well-being of another (Hogg & Vaughn, 2008). This includes altruism; an act with no selfish motives such as praise or recognition (Batson, 1991; cited in Hogg & Vaughn, 2008). The reasons for such behaviour have been largely debated bringing forth two … Read More»

How much information can short term memory hold

Encoding involves changing the information presented into a different form. Since words or other items in the short term store are rehearsed or repeated, we might assume that they are encoded in terms of their sound (acoustic coding). In contrast, the information we have stored in the long term memory nearly always seems to be … Read More»

How does early childhood attachment affect child development

2- Describe three important contributions Freud made to the field of human development. How does early childhood attachment affect child development? Describe the relationship between temperament and ‘best fit’ parenting. Freud suggested that the development occurs through a series of psychosexual stages: Oral stage (first 18 months of life): Infant’s main source of interaction occurs … Read More»

How can we live happily ever after

am sure everyone wants to lead a happy life. So how are we able to live happily ever after? What must we do to lead a happy life? In Wikipedia, Happiness is conceptualized as a state of mind or feeling characterized by contentment, love, satisfaction, pleasure or joy. Happiness can also be described as the … Read More»

History Of Clinical Neuropsychology Psychology Essay

The field of clinical neuropsychology emerged in the mid-21st century as a result of an urgent need to understand the relationship between brain, behavior and cognition, particularly abnormal brain functioning, that were lacking in other medical-based fields such as neurology (Bigler, 1991). However, the study of brain impairments and their associated behaviors had already begun in … Read More»

Historical Perspectives Of Abnormal Psychology Psychology Essay

Abnormal psychology is an integral part of psychology. It studies abnormal behavior, makes attempts to understand the abnormal and then take appropriate measures in order to change it. The concept of abnormal behavior changed in the course of time from individual to individual, from culture to culture. Today the meaning of “abnormal” is connected with … Read More»

Historical Development of the Solution Focused Narrative Practice

This assignment aims to critically analyse the historical development of the Solution Focused Narrative Practice (SFNP) and the philosophical heritage that underpins the foundation. Brief reflection and evaluation will be included on how it was applied by the author in the work place. Solution Focused Therapy (SFT) is a here and now type of psychotherapy … Read More»

Growing into Successful Adults with ADHD

behavioral disorders in children, continues through adolescence and adulthood. ADHD affects 3 to 5% of school-aged children in the United States. This means that in a classroom of 20 to 30 children, at least one will have the disorder. ADHD can be a lifelong disorder displaying four primary symptoms: inattention, hyperactivity, stubbornness, and impulsiveness. Usually, … Read More»

Group & and individual behavior

Group & an individual behavior has remained one of the favorite topics of psychologists, sociologists & researchers from quite long time. The characteristics of groups are the composites of some characteristics of individuals forming a group and some unique to the group as a whole like soldiers can act with more bravery when in group … Read More»

Grays Behavioral Activation System Psychology Essay

Gray proposed that personality is rooted from two neuropsychological systems that control behavior and emotions. One of the two systems is the behavioral activation system (BAS), which functions on the concept of positive reinforcement. Previous research has indicated that the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathways are responsible for the activation of BAS and sensitivity to the construct … Read More»

Gordon Allport An American Psychologist Psychology Essay

Psychology of the lack of interest and limited methods, in general, fails to disclose or study of the integrity and consistency of the characters that actually exist. The greatest drawback of a psychologist at the present time  is his inability to prove the truth of what he knows. Gordon Allport is an outstanding figure in the world of psychology, and now there is hardly a book on psychology of personality without a special chapter on his theory, or at least references to … Read More»

Good parenting advice for first time parents

A first-time parent may feel overwhelmed by the situation, therefore it is important to learn from other parents and research carried out in this area. This essay will look at some of the most important pieces of advice that a good parent can have, which will hopefully lead to a ‘good’ parenting. First it will … Read More»

Genes And Other Factors Of Happiness Psychology Essay

Genes and circumstances contribute equally to human happiness in the short term, but genes and neurotransmitters cause 80% of the range of happiness people feel in the long term, according to recent research in behavioral genetics and neurochemistry (Sharpe and Bryant 2008:1-9) 1. Genetic information derived from scientific explorations of genetic traits may have important links … Read More»

General Intelligence And Specific Abilities Psychology Essay

The development of meaningful artificial intelligence will require that machines acquire some variant of human consciousness. Systems that do not possess self-awareness and sentience will at best always be very brittle. Without these uniquely human characteristics, truly useful and powerful assistants will remain a goal to achieve. To be sure, advances in hardware, storage, and … Read More»

Gender Differences Emotional Intelligence Psychology Essay

Stanley Schachter and Jerome Singer:Two-Factor Theory of Emotion.According to Aronson, Wilson and Akert (2010) this theory explained that emotional experience is the result of a two-step self-perception process where people met their first experience on physiological arousal and then searching for an appropriate explanation for it. Other people may understand their emotion through observing the … Read More»

Future Career Employment Prospect From University Students Psychology Essay

The topic of the research is the future career employment prospect from university student’s perspective. University students in general have one main concern that they will consider during their university study, that is, their future career dilemma. “What career should I choose? Is this the correct degree for me? What should I do after graduation? … Read More»

Compare and contrast Freuds Psychosexual stages of development

This assignment is going to compare and contrast Freud’s psychosexual stages of development with Erikson’s psychosocial stage model. The similarities and the differences between the two models will be explained and outlined. Developmental psychology is a study of the biological, cognitive, emotional and social changes that take place over a course of time in humans. … Read More»

Four Lobes Of The Brain Psychology Essay

of the brain which is responsible for some of the major functions of the brain; among these are reasoning, cognition and concentration. The primary motor area is also located at the frontal lobe; it allows the person to consciously control his/her muscles for movement. Aside from motor function, it also has a speech motor function … Read More»

Formulation and its use in clinical psychology

Bentall, 2004) but also one of the most challenging processes used by clinical psychologists to consistently underline the array of contributing factors to clients’ distress (Hook, Hodges, Segal & Coolidge, 2010). Historically, the concept of clinical formulation has been difficult to define and to apply in practice (Eells, 1997); as such, Johnstone and Dallos (2006) … Read More»

Five perspectives of child and adolescent development

Several theories have been developed from the five major perspectives used to research child development. These perspectives include psychoanalytic, learning, cognitive, contextual, and evolutionary/sociobiological perspectives (Papalia, Olds, & Feldman, 2008). Researchers use theories to explain child development. The theories are important because they propose ideas or explanations to describe development and to predict kinds of … Read More»

Final Outline And Annotated Bibliography Psychology Essay

Everyone has their own theories of why things are the way they are. Jean Piaget, Lawrence Kohlberg, and Erik Erikson are three men that have outstanding theories about human development; all with their own little thoughts about why theirs is the way it should be. The theories of these men outline and help suggest who … Read More»

Features Of The Two Main Paradigms Psychology Essay

This section discusses the selection and justification of the appropriate research paradigm. The term paradigm, as used in this research, refers to the philosophies and beliefs that provide guidelines and principles in relation to how research is conducted (Guba & Lincoln 1994; Hussey & Hussey 1997; Ticehurst & Veal 1999). A research paradigm is a … Read More»

Fast Connected Components Labeling Algorithm Psychology Essay

Connected components labeling is an important operation in pattern recognition and computer vision [1], which is commonly adopted to detect connected regions in binary digital images. The labeling algorithm scans an image and groups its pixels into components based on pixel connectivity, and each component is assigned a unique label. According to the symbolic image, … Read More»

Family Communication Patterns and Gender Ideologies

Over the past four decades, a myriad of communication and psychology scholars have researched the influence of parent-child communication on children’s physical and psychological wellbeing (Barnett, Marshall, & Pleck, 1992), academic achievements (Myers, Schrodt, & Rittenour, 2006), relational communication (Koenig Kellas, 2010), and social behavior (Riesch, Anderson, & Krueger, 2006). Despite the severe consequences linked … Read More»

Factors that affect workers productivity

considered, with the idea that through increasing job motivation or job satisfaction, output might also be increased. The results of several previous studies have established a relationship between job satisfaction and job performance, while results of other studies have indicated a correlation between motivation and job performance (Grant, 2008; Van Knippenberg, 2000), also indicating a … Read More»

Factors influencing a person to show conformity

This essay concerns conformity and what factors influence an individual to conform to majority groups. The term conformity refers to the change in beliefs, attitudes and feelings that individual’s adopt in response to social pressure or social norms (in Baron, Branscombe & Byrne 2008). Social norms are unwritten rules and guidelines which dictate how an … Read More»

Factors Affecting Consumer Behavior Psychology Essay

Consumer behavior is affected by several factors. All these factors are grouped into four broad categories, namely psychological, personal, social and cultural factors, Kotler and Keller (2009, 190). Under each of these categories, there are many different kinds of factors. Psychological Factors: Four major elements which constitute the psychological factors are motivation, perception, learning, and … Read More»

Facilitate Or Impede Helping Behaviour Psychology Essay

It has often been assumed that animals were in the first place rendered social, and that they feel as a consequence uncomfortable when separated from each other, and comfortable whilst together; but it is a more probable view that these sensations were first developed, in order that those animals which would profit by living in … Read More»

Face recognition

analysis versus holistic forms. Remembering and recognising faces are an important skill one applies each day of their lives. It is important to the social interactions, to work and school activities, and in peoples personal family lives. Although most of the research in this area has been undertaken on ‘faces’ it is in fact rare … Read More»

Eysencks Theory Of Personality Psychology Essay

The term ‘personality’ is a derivation of the Greek word ‘persona’, which means mask or the outward appearance of an individual. However, the term, does not suggest the passivity or inertia, of its source word. Rather it refers to an alive, interacting system of an individual’s enduring persistent response patterns across a variety of situations. … Read More»

Exposure To Mass Media Violence Psychology Essay

Please Follow These Procedures: If requested by your mentor, use an assignment cover sheet as the first page of the word processor file. The assignment header should include the Learner’s last name, first initial, course code, dash, and assignment number (DoeJXXX0000-1) justified to the left and the page number justified to the right. Keep a … Read More»

Exploring the similarities and differences

underpinnings (Smith & Glass, 1977). For instance, short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy and cognitive behaviour therapy are equally effective in treating depression (see Leichsenring, 2001 for a review). This has led to the suggestion that the therapeutic working alliance relationship, which is common to all one-to one therapy, maybe an important aspect in influencing outcome (Howe, 1999). … Read More»

Exploring the role of empathy in psychotherapy

In psychotherapy three aspects are identified as imperative to ensure a therapeutic climate that facilitates growth and change. These aspects include genuineness or congruence, an attitude of unconditional positive regard and empathy or empathic understanding. Each aspect plays a complementary role to one another and once integrated provides a mechanism through which self-actualisation can be … Read More»

Explore The Relevance Of Attachment Theory Psychology Essay

As there have been many studies carried out in child development this essay will breakdown its content into the history of attachment theory and the basics of how it works. Mary Ainsworth was well known for her ‘Strange Situations’ study and this essay will give a brief description of the experiment and its outcome and … Read More»

Experiment to investigate the baby face effect

replication of the Berry and Zebrowitz-Mc Arthur (1988a) study in which it was supported that people who have baby face features give the impression that they are incompetent of deceiving, or of committing crimes on purpose, whilst people with mature face features influence our judgement negatively in cases of deceit, making us think it is … Read More»

Experimenting with a variant of the stroop effect

The aim of the experimental project was to examine a variation of the Stroop effect. How cognitive process are influenced when automatic processing take place. The hypothesis offered was, a significant difference in information processing times would be required over the two conditions when the Stroop effect was used. The null hypothesis states that their … Read More»

‘Existing career theories cannot account for modern career paths

In todays times it is agreed that careers are continuously altering and are adapting to the fast paced world of work. Along with this change there is a consensus on the direction of the change (Collin & Watts, 1996). The traditional theories and practice of work have given birth to new modern careers, careers that … Read More»

Examining the theory of mind hypothesis for autism

The Theory of Mind (TofM) hypothesis for autism has been investigated extensively in the last 30 years. This essay will review the literature which examines this theory, considering a wide range of methodological and theoretical approaches. It will be argued that whilst there are several strengths of the theory, the TofM hypothesis cannot account for … Read More»

Evolution of Cognitive Psychology

human consciousness.  Research in this area is usually related to issues of memory, attention, feelings, providing information, logical thinking, imagination, the ability to make decisions.  Cognitive abilities in the information units are not very large. Cognitive process is subject to the epistemological principle and has a wave shape in nonlinear media. It is important to … Read More»

Evaluation on two theories of cognitive development

This essay I will look at the similarity and the differences between Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s theories in explanation of child cognitive development. Particularly it will describe their theories on the importance of social interactions in influencing development. I will give a brief overview of the four stages of Piaget’s theories. Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s theories will … Read More»

Eriksons Eight Stages Of Psychosocial Development Psychology Essay

It is obvious that human undergo lots of changes such as biological, cognitive, psychological and in behaviour since the time of conception till they attain their complete adult age. These changes are said to be under any of the influences like nature, nurture, environment, and social. We also know that based on these aspects, numbers … Read More»

Emotions And The Decision Making Process In Negotiation Psychology Essay

Introduction “People wisdom” offer advice about how to deal with emotions in negotiation: Do not get emotional! Most of the times negotiators are encouraged to “Keep a poker face”, to “Swallow your pride”. For a negotiator, emotions are seen as an impediment to avoid at all costs. However, as negotiators are common human beings, this … Read More»

Emotion In Adulthood And Old Age Psychology Essay

When asked about how one feels, ones response will be quite different depending on ones age. Depending on how they respond, we can evaluate the individuals self-esteem and determine how they feel based on their age. Positive affect and negative affect can influence one’s emotion. There is evidence that “suggests that positive affect rises from … Read More»

Emotional words and there affect on memory

this, the present study investigated whether memory would improve for emotional words compared to neutral words. A matched pairs design was used with an opportunity sample of 100 participants (M=19.7, SD=), each participant was read a word list which consisted of emotional and neutral words . Participants were told their goal was to remember as … Read More»

Emotional risks you face with cosmetic surgery

{The popularity of cosmetic surgery is expanding more than ever before and as it booms consistently, a number of psychologists are anticipating the likelihood that they would be dealing with patients who are thinking of or have undergone a cosmetic procedure.|Cosmetic surgery is gaining steam and some psychologists are concerned with the psychological effect on … Read More»

Emotional Intelligence And Team Performance Psychology Essay

Claims about the positive influence of emotional intelligence (EI) on work team performance are very numerous, both in commercial and scientific literature. In this study, EI was assessed using the Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS). Paper examined the relationship between emotional intelligence and performance of 15 teams selected from telecom organizations of Islamabad/ … Read More»

Emotional Intelligence And Job Satisfaction Psychology Essay

Emotional intelligence and job satisfaction are two concepts of high interest in the modern work environment. They serve as a competitive edge in personal and organizational life. The education system or the teaching profession is one of those within which, the individuals could reap great advantage from the knowledge of emotional intelligence owing to recurrent … Read More»

Efficacy Of Binocular Vision Psychology Essay

regions of the world and then find the most reliable and efficient among all the binocular vision techniques used in clinical practice. The comparison will present the status of reliability, efficiency, strength and weakness of the each techniques in binocular vision measurement assessment. The research also stress on suitability of the test procedure to be … Read More»

Effects of the recession on students well being

intention of this research was to identify if a relationship existed between financial insecurity and students reported mental well being. A second objective was to find out if students who work part time during college score higher on the GHQ than those who do not. The sample consisted of 100 University of Limerick students; their … Read More»

Effects of multitasking on human physiological

multitasking is a rapid change of focus between tasks. While research supports the fact that “highly practiced skills can be easily performed while one is thinking about something else, but the addition of a task that requires decision making switches ones attention to that task. When people perform higher level tasks, they are using the … Read More»

Effects of Meditation and Prolonged Exposure Therapy

We propose to examine the hypothesis that veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) who attend prolonged exposure therapy (PE) along with transcendental meditation (TM) training have lower recurrences of PTSD symptoms than veterans who attend PE or TM group alone. The sampling frame of OIF/OEF veterans was systematically obtained from VAPAHCS, and we anticipate a … Read More»

Effects Of Heavy And Soft Music Psychology Essay

Music has always had affects on human emotion. Music can make anyone feel anything. However, music might have a hidden effect. This is referring to the human cardiopulmonary system. Heart rate is the amount of times the heart pumps blood in one minute. Blood pressure is how hard the blood is pumped through arteries. This … Read More»

Effects of Caffeine and Sex Differences on Memory

This study was conducted to determine the effect caffeine has on memory recall and verify whether or not there are sex differences. Though there are different types of memory, this study focuses on free immediate recall. Caffeine has been proven to cause alertness, help some forms of memory, and impede other types of memory. It … Read More»

Effectiveness of physical punishment as a behaviour modification

Physical punishment as a form of behaviour modification is a controversial issue amongst both society and professionals. Research studies and meta-analysis’s can be found to both support and oppose the efficacy of spanking as an effective form of modifying maladaptive behaviour amongst children. This essay identifies the different views on spanking, key conclusions about its … Read More»

Effectiveness Of Gestalt Therapy Psychology Essay

Effectiveness of Gestalt therapy on self awareness among patients with schizophrenia was examined through Quasi experimental pretest posttest with control group design. Purposive samples of 16 patients with schizophrenia who had low self awareness were randomly assigned into experimental and control group for the study. Gestalt therapy was intervened to the patients with Schizophrenia. Situational … Read More»

Effective methods of understanding and treating PTSD

The treatment related publications of the last twenty years places a large amount of attention on determining the most useful psychological therapy for clients with a diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder, PTSD. The overall aim of this paper is to critically evaluate current cognitive models of PTSD and literature on the effectiveness of cognitive behavioural … Read More»

Effective behavioral and cognitive techniques for managing stress

Stress management can be achieved through both cognitive and behavioral techniques. Biofeedback is a cognitive therapy, it has four types of treatment such as electromyogram (EMG), temperature biofeedback, galvanic skin response training, and electroencephalogram (EEG). Relaxation training includes deep breathing, deep muscle relaxation, quieting imagery, hypnosis, and gentle stretch and exercise. Other techniques used are … Read More»

Early life environment and a childs temperament

The question of how dependent a child’s temperament is on their environment, biology and other individual differences has been the subject of much debate in the world of psychology. To critically discuss to what extent such factors have on temperament, we should consider what this term means- “individual differences in emotional, motor, and attentional reactivity … Read More»

Early Attachment Relates To Later Adult Relationships

During the 1950s and 1960s the assumption that babies become attached to the people who feed them because of an association with hunger relief was challenged. Harlow used isolated monkeys and two wire mesh cylinders, one contained a nipple to provide milk and the other was covered in towelling. According to learning theorists the monkeys … Read More»

Drug abuse and addiction

Abstract Drug abuse and addiction is a common problem in the world and is everywhere you look. With this disorder so common, the truth is shed on the misconceptions that people have about drug abuse and addiction. This paper provides a brief overview of drug abuse and addiction, while also looking at the aspects of … Read More»

Drawing development

described by Luquet and Piaget. Luquet was one of the first to start researching into the development of drawing using a cognitive development theory and releasing a book in French during 1927. He described differing stages of drawing development which a child will pass through; this became known as the stage account. Luquet thought that … Read More»

Does personality influence our health

health. ‘Personality is the set of psychological traits and mechanisms within the individual that are organized and relatively enduring and that influence his or her interactions with and adaptations to the intrapsychic, physical, and social environments (Larsen and Buss, 2004, p.4). In the following essay these aspects will be discussed further in detail focusing on … Read More»

Does Music Enhance Athletic Capability Psychology Essay

This paper investigates the relationship between music and athletics. In many cases, music is used as an aid by athletes and by people who take up an active lifestyle. People seem to believe that listening to music while completing physical activities will increase their performance and therefore give them an edge on competition or increase … Read More»

Do attitudes predict behaviour

The relationship between attitudes and behaviour is one of the most controversial topics in social psychology. Though the definition of attitudes can not be confirmed yet, this essay uses the description in Hogg’s and Vaughan’s book (1995) that attitudes are “a general feeling or evaluation about persons, object or issue as well as a relatively … Read More»

Discussion Of The Criticisms Aimed At Qualitative Research Psychology Essay

Qualitative research has been challenged with persistent criticisms for its unreliability, or that it is deficient relative to more quantitative approaches to social research. For research to be considered of value, it has too strongly fulfil the standards of research: validity, reliability, generalisibilty and objectivity. Concepts such as reliability and validity are generally associated with … Read More»

Discusses The Methodology Of Research Psychology Essay

CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODS 3.1 Introduction Research is conducted to produce information in order to reduce the uncertainty and also as a tool to provide guidelines and helps in decision making. According to Zikmund (2003), research design consists of three types, which are exploratory research, descriptive research and causal research. 3.2 Research Design The nature … Read More»

Discuss bronfenbrenners ecological model of child development

In this assignment I will critically discuss Bronfenbrenner’s (1979) Ecological model of human development. I will look at the background to the model and will look at each system within it, discussing its’ application pertaining to children living with disabilities. Disabilities will be in the context of children that are unable to walk, communicate, and … Read More»

Discuss and justify the methodology used Research Methodology

[The aim of this chapter is to discuss and justify the methodology used in this research. In this chapter, the research design is explained, the approach to design of the research is discussed and justified. Firstly, this chapter outlines the research process, then the aims and objectives of the research, and then moves to justify … Read More»

Differentiating between apperceptive agnosia and associative agnosia

Ans. According to Campbell, DeJong and Haerer, “agnosia refers to the loss or impairment to know or recognize the meaning or import of a sensory stimulus, even though it has been perceived (Campbell et al., 2005, p.91). Numerous types of agnosia has been reported till now, like finger agnosia, visuospatial agnosia, optic agnosia , apperceptive … Read More»

Different focus approaches when learning sports skills

The purpose of this study is to investigate three different methods of focus of attention while learning a motor skill. The first method is where the learner only uses an external focus of attention (Wulf & Weigelt 1997). The second method is a “non-awareness” technique (Logan 1988) where the subject holds an internal focus of … Read More»

Differences Between Trait And Psychodynamic Theories Psychology Essay

Personality theories concentrate on how traits are developed and how behaviour is generated. Personality traits are durable dispositions of behaviour that occur across a variety of situations. They are like tendencies; a person’s predisposition to react in a certain way in various different situations. Trait theories focus on indentifying the characteristics we possess and the … Read More»

differences between psychology and common sense

This essay will examine the differences between psychology and common sense. It will also discuss the obstacles and drawbacks that primary experience and common sense beliefs can have on the epistemological advancement of any experimental science. The paper will start with a brief history of psychology and then discuss the different perspectives and approaches within … Read More»

Difference Between Genders and IQ Estimation

This study is investigating the different types of IQ estimate people will give to them selves as well as their father and mother. According (Hogan, 1978, Higgin, 1987) they found out that when people are asked to estimate their own IQ and that of their mother and father, there are dependable differences in the estimate. … Read More»

Dietary restraint theory

success or failure of weight control During past few decades psychologists have been trying to explain dietary patterns in individuals which are being controlled with a purpose of weight management, even in a healthy body shape. The main theories that have been developed throughout these years are psychosomatic (emotional eating), externality (externally induced eating cues) … Read More»

Dialectical Behaviour Therapy In Treating Borderline Personality Disorder Psychology Essay

do not necessarily reflect the views of UK Essays. Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp   Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe and chronic mental health illness, which can be described as the inability to regulate emotions and control impulses (). Individuals may also have poor interpersonal skills, self image, a high level of disturbed cognitions and suicidality. The … Read More»

Diagnosed Label Helpful Of Harmful Psychology Essay

A diagnostic label can influence a person with a disability life domain in both positive and negative way; therefore, should people be labeled with a psychiatric diagnosis is worth to research on it. Current research is concerned with the effect of labeling on an individual with disabilities as it can cause others to predict future … Read More»

Development of personality from adolescence to adulthood

There has been considerable research as to whether personality is static or developed. The idea of personality presupposes individual differences in tendency to behave, think, and feel in certain consistent ways. Fraley and Roberts (2005) found that personality traits were indisputably consistent across time and age. On the other hand, the perspective adopted by the … Read More»

Development of memory in infancy

development of memory in infancy. Memory is the process of encoding, storing and retrieving information. Encoding is the acquiring and the entering of information into the system. Storage is the retaining of the memories over time, and retrieval is recovering the stored memories when required to do so. Memory consists of three systems. Firstly there … Read More»

Development of Cognitive-behavioral Therapy

behavioral therapy (CBT). Since its inception, more than 300 controlled trials supporting its efficacy have been conducted (Sudak, 2006). The vast amount of research conducted exploring the efficacy of cognitive therapy has made it the psychotherapeutic treatment with the most empirical support (Sudak, 2006). Although CBT was originally developed to treat depression, the efficacy of … Read More»

Family Dynamics in the Development of Borderline Personality Disorder

Nature versus nurture is a huge debate that will likely continue for centuries to come. Nature advocates state, “just as a sunflower grows in an orderly way – unless flattened by an unfriendly environment – so does the human grow in an orderly way” (Santrock, 2010, p.22). This sentence alone completely negates the nature-nurture debate. … Read More»

Describe the physical and psychological aspects of hypnosis

In order to get a clear understanding of what hypnosis is we will first look at the history of hypnosis and the different concepts which have emerged over the years from as early as the 1700’s to modern day. We will start from the grandfather of hypnosis, Franz Anton Mesmer (1766) continuing onto others such … Read More»

Describe and evaluate theories of aggression

violence, a man or women being beaten by his or her spouse. There are several on-going debates regarding aggression development, one of the main debates is nature versus nurture with Konrad Lorenz supporting the nature theory by suggesting that aggression is an instinct that we are all born with and Albert Bandura supporting the nurture … Read More»

Depression In Relationship To Bullying Psychology Essay

The purpose of this research paper is to examine qualitatively the correlation between depression and suicide in relationship to bullying. Significant research has been conducted using surveys, questionnaires, interviews, and quantitative data has been supplied to explore this recent phenomenon among today’s children and adolescents. The results of this data indicate there may be a … Read More»

Depression cognitive approach psychodynamic approach and behavioural approach

do not necessarily reflect the views of UK Essays. Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp   Seligman (1973) termed depression as the ‘common cold’ of psychological problems (Gross,R.,Mcilveen,R.,2000). By using the term ‘common cold’ Seligman means that depression is the most common psychological disorder that people face. Depression is a mood disorder. Most of us at some time in our … Read More»

Literature Review dependent variable is knowledge productivity.

2.1 Introduction This chapter is divided into six main sections. This first section provides an overview of the chapter. The second section is a definition of essential terms that used in this study. The third section discusses the background and the previous study that focusing on factors that influencing and contributing to the knowledge and … Read More»

Definition Of Life Satisfaction Psychology Essay

Human is an objective creature always evaluating his life situation. He will feel no satisfaction until he gains his goals. Perhaps, it can be said that the final aspiration of every human being is to attain his goals and desires and this attainment leads to life satisfaction. Therefore, Life Satisfaction is the central aspect of … Read More»

Definition And Related Theories Of Personality Psychology Essay

In this chapter, our research is begins with an in-depth discussion on the definition and related theories of personality found in other articles or past research on antecedents. It is to propose and study a wide range of theoretical knowledge or terminologies of related literature in the key terms such as emotional stability, extraversion, openness, … Read More»

Culture Shown In Advertising Materialism Psychology Essay

Belk and Richins as giving importance/being attached to worldly possessions. He proposed three measures to quantify materialistic traits, namely – possessiveness inclination and tendency to retain control of one’s possession), non-generosity (unwillingness to give possessions to or share possessions with others) and envy (interpersonal attitude involving displeasure and ill-will at the superiority of (another person) … Read More»

Criticism of a Social Group

members’ evaluation of the criticism depends largely on the source of the message. According to social identity theory outgroup members are typically evaluated less positively than ingroup members because people are motivated to perceive their group (and themselves) as more favorable than a reference group. Applying this ingroup preference to intergroup criticisms; outgroup critics are … Read More»

Critically Analyse The Social Penetration Theory Psychology Essay

Social penetration theory was first proposed by Altman and Taylor in 1973. There after it was further developed by Altman. This theory is a general approach to interpersonal attraction that looks at the development of an interpersonal relationship from acquaintanceship to close friendship as a gradual and systematic process. It also looks at how friendship … Read More»

Critical Incidents Technique Of Job Analysis Psychology Essay

Critical Incidents Technique of job analysis is the recording of behaviours by the worker that are specific to successful or unsuccessful job performance. The qualities needed to do the job also the systematic study of the responsibilties,duties and tasks to perform a job is known as job analysis. Job analysis produces four products which are … Read More»

Criminal Profiling Is Effective Psychology Essay

used frequently by the police agencies. In the last decade, the assistance from psychologists within the UK can be termed as behavioural investigative advice (Alison, 2005). Criminal profiling regardless of the anxieties that surrounds its efficiency, it has continuously been a criminal investigation instrument. Henceforth, criminal profiling is related normally along with enquiry due to … Read More»

Counseling Couples And Families Psychology Essay

This paper examines the approach towards the counselling of families and the technique behind cognitive behavioural therapy, within the context of psychology. The paper provides a brief introduction to family counselling methods and approaches and particular focus on cognitive behavioural therapy. The paper is structured into two main parts: Part 1 deals with the method, … Read More»

Correlations Of Gratitude And Forgiveness Psychology Essay

Gratitude has only been focused within the field of psychology in the past decade although historically it had been discussed at length in theology, religion and philosophy (Emmons & McCullough, 2003). Looking back a little into the past, great philosophers such as Aristotle, Epicurus and La Rochefoucauld were convinced that manifestations of gratitude were due … Read More»

Core Conditions Proposed By Carl Rogers Psychology Essay

Client centred therapy which is also known as person-centred therapy is an adaption to the humanistic approach within counselling. The heart of client-centred therapy was fathered by Carl Ransom Rogers in the 1950’s and is known today as Rogerian therapy. Carl was born in 1902, beginning his career within religion but soon found his feet … Read More»

confounding factor or lurking variable

variable that has an influence on the relationship between the variables of an experiment. Although they are not the variable of actual interest (i.e. the independent variable), they can influence the outcome of an experiment and they are considered to be undesirable as they could add error to an experiment. A proper designed experiment should … Read More»

Conceptual And Operational Definition Psychology Essay

Two broad and universal dimensions of parenting practices have been recognized as critical components of the parenting practices from the past two decades namely parental warmth and parental control (Suchman, Rounsaville, DeCoste & Luthar, 2007). These parenting practices have direct effect on child development outcomes (Darling and Steinberg, 1993). A study among adolescents in Republic … Read More»