Urbanization is when individuals decide to change their lifestyle and relocate from the rural areas to developed cities. Due to the growth of national population who live within urban settlements, urbanization has become a major factor influencing demographic processes. Hence, cities and towns have become cores of trade and culture. Throughout history, urbanization has been contributing to human and economic development. The aim of this essay is to display the economic, technological and cultural causes of urbanization and its effects on overcrowding, environmental pollution and disease. This essay will discuss the reason of immigration to urban cities. Urbanization, currently has developed to be a major focus of the cities around the world. Despite many challenges, governments are working excessively to avoid or to resolve various problems by urbanization.
Several aspects contribute positively to urbanization, due to the fast pace of globalization. Therefore, people prefer to move to urban cities to have a sustainable living standards, and variety of social benefits, besides recent technologies used for services, and where jobs vary from agriculture to production and industrial. According to (Jinga ,2018) there are approximately 258 million international migrants living outside their country of origin. The relocation of the people from rural to urban cities affect the distribution of the global population as well, therefore the world’s urban population has reached to over 4 billion today. According to Jinga, 60% of people will be an urban resident by 2030 and the average will vary to 85% by 2050. The breakthrough economies of agglomeration and specialization, and the qualified service delivery and workforce productivity are supported by urbanization process.
Furthermore, modern life contributes in the process of urbanization, since urban cities rely more on technological communication, infrastructure, medical facilities, educational, fashion, food, liberalization beliefs and many other social benefits of entertainment flowing in the cities. More often, People relocate to big cities for acquiring a new culture and experience of cities living standards. NSW Australia is classified among the best in the world for having the superlative quality, flourishing and diversity lifestyle due to multinational people living in the same area. Besides of the healthcare system, is accessible for all the populations living in the country, whether they are citizens or residents. Furthermore, the diverse range of schools, and universities that are ranked in the best 100 universities worldwide. As well as the weather and temperature that assist people to enjoy outdoor activities and sports. Adding the leisure and entertainment in NSW, that has the finest dining international restaurants that are ranked in the world’s top 50, famous shopping center, casinos, pubs and many other benefits. Can’t neglect the culture side, NSW has notable cultural capital, such as theaters like Opera house, museums and libraries. All the above factors contribute to pull people to urban countries.
Migration to urban areas, both locally and internationally, is increasing economic growth in cities. Due to this migration, there is an increase in infrastructure building in order to accommodate this growing population. Sydney city, the writer McDonald (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2018) declares that Sydney population grown by more than 770,000 in NSW in 2016. This unexpected growth in Sydney results of infrastructure shortage. Therefore, NSW government is intensifying to solve accommodation issue in order to provide housing residents. The Department of Planning expects that after 5 years, there will be approximately 200,000 new homes will be constructed. This number shows an increase of 46 % on the past 5 years when only 134,700 new homes were constructed. As projected, in 20 years onwards between 2014 and 2034, Sydney’s population is expected to soar to 1.6 million people.
However, Migration has significant effect to the urban cities such as overcrowding. This major problem of mobbing and congestion is increasing daily due to the overpopulation between the local and international who search for better living standards. According to (Sullivan, 2018) Sydney is boosting in population that reached 4.7 million in 500,000 higher than 6 years ago, this massive number of people affects on transportation, house quotes, schools and hospitals. For example Sydney’s Town Hall train station, has increased enormously during the peak time due to a 23% of passengers in 3 years. This fact, pushed the government to take critical action by adding staff to platforms to avoid severe overcrowding and any problems that might occurs between the passengers at the station. According to Sullivan, Trippers using Town Hall as a station‘s gates reached 688 million in the past 12 months, hence a 23% rise on the 55 million passengers in years 2015 – 16. This fact leads to 13 million extra passengers at Town Hall.
As the population is growing rapidly, another emerging issue to be highly considered is the environment. Due to the uncontrolled urbanization to the major cities, the environmental degradation has been developing dramatically and causing negative results, such as air pollution and spread of diseases. Dr Neiderud (2015) explained that since the time of industrial revolution in the 18th century, the process of urbanization is remaining constantly growing. the U.N evaluates that 3.9 billion of people live in urban cities , leads to notable challenges for global health and the epidemiology of infectious diseases such as zoonotic diseases that can spread in a fast manner , for example New York City is considered among the largest population of rats in the United States and become worldwide threat and the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS ) , asthma , allergies , infertility and cancer .
Due to urbanization , the warming of the climate has contributed to the greenhouse gas emissions from burning fossil fuels oil and gas , that affect both the climate and the human health .According to Dean and Green (2018) ,they declared that Australia , air pollution –initially from burning fossil fuels ,caused approximately 3000 deaths per year .Adding to that, the climate change will directly affects the air pollution by varying the temperature and the wind speed and direction , moreover the increasing of fire weather , dust storms that we are facing in NSW.
Urbanization is modifying the landscape of human arrangement with significant consequences for living, environmental and developmental conditions in different parts of the world. Three dimensions of sustainable development are linked to urban growth: economic, social and environmental.
There is no time to lose, therefore strategies and strict policies must be applied for security purpose in urban city, in order to reduce the pollution and minimizing the epidemic diseases and assisting the vulnerable people for housing, healthcare, education and safety lifestyle in the coming decades. Government‘s objective and target is to plan for sustainable area to improve the environment condition and safe habitats for all urban area , and coerce people and organization to use safe resources and support economy based on investment in green infrastructure to save the globalization of the world .
- Dean, A & Green, D (2018). Climate change and human health in Sydney. Retrieved on 10th of May 2018 from http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-9326/aac02a
- Jinga, I (2018). Sustainable cities – gateways for people on the move. Retrieved on 9th of April 2018 from : https://www.un.org/development/desa/en/news/population/cpd51-sustainable-cities.html
- Kotze, J (2015). Great things to live in a city – Retrieved on 29th of May 2015 from https://www.forbes.com/sites/rent/2015/05/29/8-things-that-are-so-great-about-living-in-a-city/#149ec883fca6
- McDonald , P (2018). Sydney’s housing demand – Retrieved on 13th of Mar 2018 from https://www.abc.net.au/news/2018-03-13/sydney-farms-disappearing-due-to-urban-sprawl/9523428
- Neiderud, C (2015). How urbanization affects the epidemiology of emerging infectious – diseases Retrieved on 24th of Jun 2015 from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4481042/
- Sullivan, M (2018). Town Hall station overcrowding – Retrieved on 8th of Oct 2018 fromhttps://www.smh.com.au/national/nsw/town-hall-station-overcrowding-to-force-staff-to-slow-access-at-peak-20180921-p5056j.html