Within the sport and hospitality field, the term ‘event’ is used to describe a wide range of event categories many of which have quite different characteristics. According to the article â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦. “Such events range from the Olympic Games at the mega-event end of the scale to small regional festivals.” Jago and Shaw (1998, p.29). Other good definitions could be used including, (Getz 1991; Jago & Shaw 1998; Arcodia & Robb 2000). According to Jago and Shaw (1998, p.29), the definition of subcategories of events, including community festivals, and mega events is “a onetime infrequently occurring event of limited duration that provides the consumer with a leisure and social opportunity beyond everyday experience”.
Community events and festivals according to â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦. “Reflect and celebrate the community in which they are staged”. This statement is continued by suggesting that street parades and festivals can “create a sense of pride and a sense of place or identity”. They provide for different levels of participation which helps bring people together. According to â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦. Events and festivals can “boost the local economy, by attracting visitors and showing them that the area is a great place to live, work and invest”. Managing a community event or festival is complex and could be very overwhelming. Nevertheless when profitable, an event can be extremely enjoyable, rewarding and pleasurable.
With a crowd of 30,000 people the Lakemba street festival held on Saturday 7th August 2010, celebrates the local multicultural community coming together. The Lakemba City Council strongly believes that staging street parades, festivals and events are an important part within Lakemba, as they help unite the community and the local neighborhood in celebration and festivity. According to â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦.. Street festivals “offer the population with a sense of belonging to their local community and are also seen as an effective promotional tool for the many groups and organizations that operate within the municipality”. Indicated on the websiteâ€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦. The festival included a variety of foods including “food stalls offering a range of cuisines and treats from different countries including Malaysia, Fiji, India, Greece, Turkey, Lebanon, and the Cook Islands”. This statement is continued by suggesting that the event “embraced the theme ‘World on your Plate’” suggesting the celebration of a multicultural community. Staging events and festivals also assist by supplying the opportunity for people to express and convey their cultural prosperity and diversity of the community, as well as some unique features including the areas environment factors and heritage.
The vision of the Lakemba City Council’s with the assistance of hosting events and festivals in the local area are established with the community goal to:
Support and encourage community belonging, and to
Support the contribution and participation in leisure, by distinguishing and understanding the benefits that participation in local festivals brings to the community and the individual welfare.
There is a great expectation that staging events provide a high visitor spending that will contribute extensively to the local economy. Stated in â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦. The anticipation of tourists and increased expenditure in the destination area is a common feature of any special event (Murphy and Carmichael, 1991). However this approach can be impractical unless the area has a mixture of entertaining factors that assist in attracting people which benefit the economy growth and development. With Lakemba providing a clean environment, sufficient services and infrastructure, and a wide range of events and attractions including Justice Dance Crew, Politician â€¦â€¦â€¦.. and many more singing and dancing acts, appeal to different people from different places to the area. According to â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦. Local groups recognize that the economic value of events needs to be recorded in order to make effective decisions (Yoshioka, Virden and Knopf, 1991).
Festivals and Special events can create extensive economic costs, which are usually not thought of or might be missed during the excitement of the event. According to â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦.. These can include “direct, indirect and opportunity costs” (Crompton, 1995). This statement is continued by stating that “the direct costs associated with staging a local event are similar in nature to mega events only in smaller size”. These include, police responsibility, managing traffic, medical aid, security, garbage removal, and other costs. Indirect costs might be difficult to record but include, personal or property damage connected to drug or alcohol use at the event, social conflict, congestion, disruption to lifestyle of local people and vandalism.
According to â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦. “The direct and indirect benefits of a local festival event are similar to a mega event only smaller in magnitude”. Staging street parades and festivals are known to increase employment, income, production, investment, additional services, infrastructure, innovations and improvements to the area. According to â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦. “Intangible benefits such as growth in community strength and co-operation can result from the host community which is involved in event planning and production”. This statement is continued by identifying that the event also has the ability to enhance the values of the local people as well as providing economic stimulus (Getz, 1991). Activities such as having help from volunteers in planning, organizing, marketing and production can provide important relationships which help create and attract donations to the development of the local community (Williams, Dossa and Tompkins, 1995). The Lakemba street festival helped create an abundance of community assistance and generosity through the support of volunteers and entertainment acts that performed. Staging local events and festivals must generally influence and affect the host community with a positive impression while providing economic motivation and productivity.
Hall (1992) suggests that the “impact of volunteer labor is a good example of added economic value which provides additional benefits to a local event”. Identified in â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦. Williams, Hainsworth and Dossa, (1995) also explains the significance of having “volunteer work to the event by providing free labor in areas such as hosting visitors, maintaining services, event management, and ensuring safety and security”. Due to the fact that volunteer work is mostly offered from leisure time, it is understood that in turn this would provides minimal opportunity costs making the community benefits as a whole.
According to â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦ Richie (1984) he notes that using two major sources to constantly and frequently provides an extensive demonstrable data base for economic effect estimates. These major data sources include direct and indirect procedures. Gaining information from people at the event directly can enable researchers to gain information about economic impacts. Indirect data can be gained from organizations that either participated or were affected by the event (Uysal and Gitelson, 1994). In order to acquire suitable, consistent and reliable data, using both direct and indirect measures is necessary.
According to Burns and Mules (1986), the geographical frame of reference of an event is an important factor to consider when assessing costs and benefits. They suggest that people attending the event that spend money is indicated as an important aspect of funds from outside the area. With events that are staged in smaller events, there is more ability for money attached to imported goods and services at events. In the case of the Lakemba street parade the indirect measures of spending is difficult to estimate. According to â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦.. “Funds paid to businesses outside the region are expected to be substantial due to the nature of purchased goods”. Most small regions including Lakemba do rely greatly on goods and services ‘imported’ from larger cities and shopping centers.
Other important factors that impact on street or festival events include social impacts. Some examples include the strengthening of already established services and convenience stores, attracting new and different people to the area (Getz 1991). According to â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦. (Onyx & Bullen 2000) issues such as safety, trust and a sense of personal efficacy have importance in the study of social impacts place on festivals and community events. Delamere’s (1997) states that to the success of the event, some social factors that affect events and festivals include the friendliness, safety, acceptance and creativity of the community.
According to â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦ social impacts are defind as factors that have an impact on the quality of life for local community. This indicates that economic effects of the event including employment opportunities and environmental impacts including litter are likely to influence the general view of the local people. In conjuction with this statement Ritchie (1984), and later Hall (1989, 1992) identified six elements that have the ability to impact on an event. These include economic, tourism/commercial, physical, socio-cultural, psychological, and political factors. Some examples are shown in the table below.
Many local, community events are unique in their design, format and operation system relying on the local community. The potential for people attending to spend money can be inadequate and restricted.
The Lakemba street festival was the 11th held this year. The festival was located at the main street of Lakemba where people where able to participate in and enjoy fun activities, dance and food. The event is run by Canterbury Council, which it celebrates respect, unity and peace.