Design/methodology – To explore the issues, a quantitative study was conducted. There are 200 questionnaires distributed and less than 200 questionnaires expected to be completed in a correct manner. The questions in the survey will be measure by 5 points range scale, range from 1 (strongly agree) to 5 (strongly disagree). There are total of 20 questions been asked and each question represent the hypothesis that want to be tested.
Keywords – Generation Y, Lifestyle Theme Based Restaurant, Theme Restaurant, Restaurant Choice Factor, Customer Satisfaction
Paper type – Research paper
Introduction 2-5 pages
Nowadays people are eating out more often, but they increasingly put a premium on saving time and eating healthy in better eating environments (Ryu & Han, 2010). As a result, the new restaurants with theme based have emerged as a growth category in the foodservice industry. According to Fen & Lian (2010) service quality, customer satisfaction and customer’s re-patronage intentions in the context of the restaurant industry are important.
In Malaysia, the restaurant industry is experience an impressive transformation and strengthens competition. Restaurant is a very important area to explore but often become neglected area of study (Kivela, Inbakaran and Reece, 1999). The fact is restaurant business has a low assumption about the service and the quality of service is difficult to prove until customers come and patronize in the particular restaurant.
The research problem arise from this study is because currently every restaurant has a theme, it tries to convey to its customers, some more successfully than others and some of the restaurants has failed due to they did not bring some improvement to the targeted specific market and not focus on their food quality (E.S.P consulting broker, 2010). They believe that the essenstial way in susccessful the restaurant is consistent in the good food and excellent customer service.
Moreover, based on study done in Los Angles by Weiss, Feinstein and Dalbor (2004), has found out that sometimes theme based restaurants fails to provide an innovative idea and lack of entertaining experience to their customers (Bagli, 1998). The decline of theme restaurant industry also occurred because of high priced menus (Pate, 2000), low quality of food (Bagli, 1998), high development costs (Ramseyer, 2001), low repeat business (Farkas, 1998), poor location (Frumkin, 2000), and décor that never changes (Bagli, 1998).
As there is study proof that Gen Y customers has a different life style compared to their baby boomer parents and other customer cohorts (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2004) and have greater disposable income (Tomkins, 1999), Gen Y tend to looking for theme based things. So it is an opportunity for theme restaurant management to start look at Gen Y market.
It is important to look at Gen Y preferences in choosing several of theme restaurants because Gen Y whose plays the role as consumers has their differentiation in their spending power and preferences. Moreover, if the food and customer service in the restaurant is not up to their preference, it will not drive them to go back to eat at the same place. In order to solve this research problem, I came out with a research question, “What are the factors that influencing Generation Y in choosing lifestyle-theme based restaurant?”
The main purpose of this study is to examine the factors that affect customer to dine at lifestyle-theme based restaurants. Because every single things that experienced by customers during their visit on that particular restaurant may be different each time, for example the quality of service experienced by one customer is different with the other customers. Thus influence their satisfaction level and their re-patronage intentions.
The importance of this study is aimed for 2 aspects of service provider. First, it is aimed to help existed theme restaurant managers to form improvement strategies on their business which focus on characteristics that range most important from Gen Y customers. Second, it is aimed for the owners of new comers’ theme restaurant to improve better idea in order to attract Gen Y consumers to come and dine at their new theme restaurant, it is important for the new business to know and respond potential consumers’ expectation and preferences.
The several objectives in this study were:
(a) To identify the main factors that influences Generation Y in choosing lifestyle-theme restaurant;
(b) To access Generation Y preference for lifestyle-theme restaurant selection; and
(c) To address the importance of Generation Y preference to bring better marketing improvement and increase more revenue for lifestyle-theme restaurant.
The type of research methodology is quantitative technique; the data collection method will be a structured survey which is a form of questionnaire, the sampling method will be generation Y respondents and they will be male and female in different background and profile but specific of their age will be between 16-32 years old.
There will be 200 questionnaires distributed and less than 200 questionnaires expected to be completed in a correct manner. It will be conducted in area around Bandar Sunway, Petaling Jaya, Subang Jaya, and Puchong. Potential respondents were pre-screened with the question, “Have you dined at a theme restaurant in Malaysia during the past twelve months?” If the answer was “yes,” respondents were asked to participate in the study by completing the next questions. The survey will be measure by 5 points range scale, range from 1 (strongly agree) to 5 (strongly disagree).
This research consists of three parts in order to meet research objective and to answer research question. First part begins with a review on the literature related to theoritical framework on Generation Y behavior, customer satisfaction in theme based restaurant and hypothesis development. In second part there are two (2) things to highlight on; first (1) is explanation on research methodolgy used in conducting this research paper, second (2) is findings and analysis, it is describes the result obtained comprehensively and systematically.
Third part is resolves the research questions, evaluate findings in order to meet research objective and to give recommendations. Then, conclusion will be showed at the end of the research paper.
This study begins with a review of the literature related to facts about generation Y and a brief introduction to theme restaurants. Next, this study examines the â€¦â€¦â€¦
The study presents findings of aâ€¦â€¦, and concludes that by highlightingâ€¦â€¦.. and recommendations from a marketing and hospitality perspective.
Part 1 Literature Review 15-20 pages
“FACTORS INFLUENCING GENERATION Y IN CHOOSING
LIFESTYLE THEME BASED RESTAURANT IN KLANG VALLEY”
In order to identify what are the factors influencing Generation Y consumer in choosing which lifestyle theme restaurant to dine in, first main point we must understand the customer satisfaction towards theme based restaurant, because in restaurant concept, customer satisfaction is an indicator whether a customer will patronage to a restaurant (Fen & Lian, 2010). Even there is no guarantee of a satisfied customer will return to that particular restaurant, but it is nearly certain that a dissatisfied customer will not repeat their visit (Soriano, 2002). So from the previous dining experience it will affect customer to re-visit the restaurant.
In the literature review it will be explained about the facts about Generation Y and how they make their decision making, continue with explanation on 4 types among all of theme restaurants available in Malaysia with focus on lifestyle theme restaurant. Moreover, we will talk about customer satisfaction factors in 2 different types of restaurant, first in casual theme restaurant and second in theme based restaurant, from this comparison we can actually see the differences in customer satisfaction between these restaurants. Thus it drives 5 hypothesis are proposed to confirm the relationship between food quality, service quality, atmosphere, pricing and recommendation as a factors influencing Generation Y in choosing lifestyle theme restaurant.
Facts about Generation Y
Generation Y was born between 1979 and 1995, now aged 16-32 (Kattiyapornpong, 2009). They are optimistic, technology savvy and very demanding. Currently the majority of Generation Y is in university population. In their generation, they enjoyed Greenday, American Idol, Linkin Park, Black Eyed Peas and they also experienced global terrorism in November 9, 2001 (Kattiyapornpong, 2009).
Experiences occur in childhood and teenage years create differences between baby boomers, generation X and genertion Y (McCrindle, 2010). Baby boomers were influenced by advent of TV, the Cold War, Rock and Roll and decimal currency. Generation X was influenced by Personal Computer, AIDS, single parent families, and recession. Generation Y was influenced by the advent of internet, cable television, globalisation and September 11 (McCrindle, 2010)
Generation Y or millennial youths of this generation have significant spending power and wield considerable clout in purchase decisions for their family as well as being savvy consumers themselves (Harris Interactive, 2003; O’Donnell, 2006; AC Nielsen, 2006; Wilson, 2007).
Gen Y people they tend to form a community because they wanted to be understood, respected, included and accepted. This generation contributes strong loyalty to their friends. They work hard to fulfill what their peers expected from them, they have self-esteem and very well in regarded their self in group or sub-culture (McCrindle, 2010).
Decision Making by Generation Y
A study conducted by Halpern, 1997 saying that in order to arrive at a decision, there are several steps that must be followed, (1) must realize that it is going to be necessary to make a decision, (2) to determine the goals to be achieved, (3) generate alternatives which lead to fulfill the proposed goals, (4) evaluate whether these alternatives meet expectations and (5) select the best alternative.
In decision process it seems that women are more affected by the environment, they look for more information and dedicate more time to the decision process (Gill, Stockard, Johnson, & Williams, 1987) on the contrary, men are more dominant, assertive, objective, and realistic (Wood, 1990).
Theming is the process where an environment is decorates by a distinct character. Nowadays theme based restaurant has become common strategy used by the service industry, especially those in hospitality and tourism industry (Munoz, C. & Wood, N., 2009). Consumers are attracted to themed restaurants because of variety reasons.
Higher standards of living and dynamic development in the food and beverage industry it drives consumer begins to pay attention towards environment, atmosphere and personalization apart from satisfying themselves in physical products. Today’s consumers are excited in purchase products and steps to consume the product that brings the enjoyment and fulfill their experience (Miller, 2007).
From many theme restaurants which focus on nation or regional like Italian, Japanese, Korean or Mexican, they using different concepts of theme to enrich their food styles and features. For the restaurant that taking music, history, sports or even gaming as their themes, various consuming experiences are deliver to the consumers.
However, because of the development of theme restaurants create a lot of competitions in restaurant industry, many of theme restaurants are facing low profit or even negative rates. In order to turn this situation around and solve the problems, theme restaurants begin to attract customers one by one, by meeting their demand as well as increase in service quality and higher the restaurant standard.
Clasiffication of Theme Restaurants (variety, deli, seafood)
Talk about theme restaurant, it is not only about restaurant with particular theme, but theme restaurant also can be classified into many different types. Especially in Malaysia, there are many different theme restaurant opening now, however the main focus in this research paper is towards lifestyle theme restaurant. Here are the following different types of theme based restaurant available in Malaysia such as Ethnic Restaurant, Country Style Restaurant and Steak House Restaurant. These three theme restaurants will be explain in a brief form and it may not cover all types of theme restaurant in Malaysia, and next to it there will be spesific discussion on lifestyle theme restaurant.
Ethnic Theme Based Restaurant
In several of studies, the term of ethnic food has been defined differently. Utami (2004) defines ethnic food as a spesific cuisine from different region that reflect particular characteristics of its local origin. Utami (2004) added that people who are from different area from its origin will consider the food is ethnic. Based on restaurant segmentation study done by Olsen et al. (2000), an ethnic restaurant is defined as full service restaurant which offering dishes from foreign origin country for example Chinese, Japanese, Thai, and Italian.
For consumers, ethnic-themed restaurant is the most common and also the frequent exposure to theming by the restaurants. Consumers are dine to ethnic-themed restaurants for different reasons, for some of them ethnic-themed restaurants are innovation, a way to connect to their ethnicity (Negra, 2002) and interact with a different culture and gastronomy (Bailey and Tian, 2002; Barbas, 2003; Germann-Molz, 2003; Long, 2003; Tian, 2001). Currently the demand for ethnic cuisine and theme restaurants has been rise (Dundelston, 2003; Lewis, 2007; Wahlgreen, 2005).
Walker (2007) argued that every ethnic restaurant is well design based from the crockery, food and restaurant décor of a national culture is consider as a theme restaurant. The example of the restaurant can be Mexican, Chinese, Japanese, Korean and Indian. If the restaurant is represent several national decorations using traditional ethnic color and artifacts and serving exotic cuisine, it is a theme restaurant (Walker, 2007)
Country Style Theme Based Restaurant
Based on a study done by Munoz, C. & Wood, N. in 2009 about Mexican restaurants, this type of country restaurant has experienced a rise in popularity over the first decade of this twenty first century (Van Houten, 2004; Wahlgren, 2005). Their improving on the availability of spices, peppers, and produces (Ruggless, 2005). While this restaurant chains attentively provide a wider variety of regional dishes and flavors, others still continue to offer patrons on standard Americans menu items while forget the importance of this type of restaurant plays as a cultural arbiter.
The majority of Mexican restaurants are often focusing on specific sounds, smells and textures to bring and create an appealing and successful environment in their restaurant (Solomon & Englis, 1994). The components for success also often include elements such as restaurant design, employees, cultural artifacts, food, drink and entertainment music (Guinness, 2002).
Steak House Theme Based Restaurant
There are many steakhouse restaurants in Malaysia boasting to be the best. It can be nationwide franchises or homegrown branch. A lot of factors come into play when looking for a good steakhouse restaurant, ambience for instance, cleanliness of the establishment, fixtures and furnitures, and quality of service (Tilden, 2010).
A good steak house restaurant should be have quick and polite servers in raising restaurant’s popularity and a sommelier should know the right kind of red wine would match with customer’s steak ordered. The restaurant should be able to fulfill guest spesific orders, have different gimmicks to attract their customers and lastly of course the steak itself (Tilden, 2010).
One of the most successful steakhouse restaurant concepts is Outback Steakhouse. In Malaysia it self, we can find it in Kuala Lumpur and Bukit Bintang area. It is first opened in Florida in 1998, at that time beef was not everyone’s favourite meal but now there are more than 880 Outback Steakhouse restaurants out there (Walker, 2008). Each Outback Steakhouse restaurant is a friendly, casual, relaxing place, with fantastic food, excellent and attentive staff (Walker, 2008).
1.5.4 Casual Theme Restaurant
One of the largest casual theme restaurant chains is Tony Roma’s, it specializing in baby ribs. With nearly 200 restaurants chain in 33 countries over 17 states and 6 continents, Tony Roma’s is one of the most globally recognizable restaurants name in food industry. Tony Roma’s also serves signature onion loaf, steak, onion loaf, chicken and seafood to thousand of guests every day. Tony Roma’s first opened in Miami, Florida on 1972. It featured casual décor with comfortable ambience. The menu offered is simple and consisted of great tasting food and reasonable price. Baby back ribs are the house speciality menu and everyone favourite menu (source: tonyromas.com)
1.5.5 Lifestyle Theme Based Restaurant
Restaurants that featuring all varieties of live music is popular across the country. Theme restaurants segment has struggled during late of 1990s until this decade. Theme restaurants that have survived in restaurant business have given a priority on their quality of food (Miller, 2006). Famous restaurant like Hard Rock Café and Planet Hollywood has been established since early 1990s, and both of these restaurants have promoted their brand reputation and expand in casino market.
Theme restaurants like Hard Rock Café and Planet Hollywood have huge of popularity and located in very strategic location nearby major tourist attractions. Like in Malaysia, Hard Rock Café is located at Kuala Lumpur and Planet Hollywood previously also located at Kuala Lumpur but no longer opened. Most of the profit in many theme restaurants is come from the high price of merchandise (MacLaurin and MacLaurin, 2000).
Large theme restaurants also involve large of capital and investments. They focus on architec, color, lighting, sound effect, color, fabrics, wall, furniture and fixtures. These all are blended together to create uniquenes, drama and excitement (Walker, 2007). In Las Vegas, different kind of theme restaurants founded however it is often fail because food and service are lost in the high theater. Food is really sensitive and main factor must have in many theme restaurants (Walker, 2007). Miller (2006) gives strategy for new comer’s theme restaurant concepts to make the food and dining experiences as a fundamental on restaurant business, high quality of food will help theme restaurants meets consumer’s preferences and expectations.
Some theme restaurants appeal to an older generation and present a time for reflection and nostalgia, for examples Hard Rock Café and Planet Hollywood (Walker, 2007). So in this research paper we will look at lifestyle theme restaurants like T-Bowl, The Garden, Full House, Bubba Gump, Gasoline, etc which these are the lifestyle theme restaurants can be found in Malaysia especially in Klang Vallety area and its patronise by generation Y.
188.8.131.52 Garden Lifestyle Store and Café
Lately, more and more concept restaurants came in to food industry. Last two years there is new type of outlet which sells foods and decoration items. It is like you are dining in the middle of garden and at the same time you can shop in the lifestyle store. Garden Lifestyle Store and Café established since 2009, offers an extensive of food choice fusing from both Western and Asian cuisines. It is a semi fine dining restaurant with breathaking atmosphere and impressive interior design to give customers an experience of dining in a real garden. The restaurant decorated with bunch of beautiful flowers and plants, a pianist will present a performance of melody rhythm from the stunning white grand piano. In Malaysia there are 6 branches of Garden Lifestyle Store and Café which are located at 1 Utama, The Curve, Sunway Pyramid, Mid Valley, Alamanda (Putrajaya) and Viva (Kuala Lumpur). (Source: garden-cafe.com.my)
184.108.40.206 Full House Lifestyle Store & Café
Fullhouse Lifestyle Store & Café is designed to resemble a full sized house. It offers fusion delight foods, unique menu and enjoyable dining experience. Besides from that, almost everything at Fullhouse is for sale, from clothes, accessories, gifts and decorative items. Fullhouse also provides event management, where you can arrange any party celebration or special occasion. They provide theme party as well as event service to help their guest to arrange the most happening party in town. It is a truly novel home dining experience. Guest will feel a homely ambience from the first step they walk into the restaurant. It is suitable for family gathering, romantic dinner and hangout place with friends (Source: fullhousecafe.com.my).
220.127.116.11 T-Bowl Restaurant
T-Bowl or known as Toilet Bowl Restaurant was established on 18th February 2008 and first opened in QueensBay Mall at Penang, Malaysia. This restaurant designed base on bathroom concept, where toilet bowl used as seat, basin as dining table, mini toilet bowl as platter. The restaurant offers varieties of cuisines range from Hong Kong, Japan, Korean and Western. Todays, eating is more to pleasure and enjoyment, it is not as simple as an action only. T-Bowl provides different eating experience, enjoyment and welcome generation of modern and trendy era (Source: t-bowl.com).
18.104.22.168 Bubba Gump Shirmp Co. Restaurant and Market
The first Bubba Gump Shrimp Co. Restaurant and Market was opened in 1996 in California. It has grown in many locations throughout the United States and internation. It is chain of seafood restaurants, provides a casual environment and great meal. At Bubba Gump Shirmp Co. food is the diva. They offer features shrimp, famous baby back ribs and everyone favorite drinks. Since 1996, Bubba Gump Shrimp Co. has been providing unique service, fantastic foods and fun casual atmosphere. Todays, this restaurant located in 22 domestic and 11 international locations, it has grown into a global brand (Source: bubbagump.com).
22.214.171.124 Gasoline Café
Gasoline café is a new dining sensation that carries out modern lifestyle. It is a new look café, provides varieties of delicious food, great atmosphere and convenient location. Gasoline café is a concept café specialized in comic themes. It provides fresh and nutrious meals. There is variety of cuisines served which are Hong Kong, Chinese, Japanese and Western cuisines. All the food and beverages are prepared according to teenagers’ preferences and refined to suit local tastes. The drinks offered such as variety of smoothies, soda drink and flavor taste of tea (Source: gasoline.com.my).
1.6. Customer Satisfaction
In today’s competitive market, many companies are increasingly their firm’s marketing strategies and tactics in order to make profits and contribute fully growth of the company. Customer satisfaction factors and repatronage intention are global issues that may affect all organizations, it can be large or small company, profit or non-profit company and local or global company. To improve customer satisfaction and retention, many companies are concerned in learning, analyzing and implementing new marketing strategies which aim for the benefits on firm’s financial (Fen and Lian, 2010).
Quality and customer satisfaction have been recognized as an important aspect for success and survival in today’s competitive market. Many researchers have conducted on these two concepts, quality and satisfaction are link together to customer behavior in purchase and loyalty intention (Olsen, 2002); willingness to spread postive word of mouth (Kang, Nobuyuki and Herbert, 2004); and complaint intention (Söderlund and Ã-hman, 2005).
In restaurant concept, customer satisfaction is used as an indicator whether a customer will patronage to a restaurant. Even there is no guarantee of a satisfied customer will return to particular restaurant, but it is nearly certain that a dissatisfied customer will not repeat their visit. An analysis on customer satisfaction factors will provide clues for food service manager to take action and increase the posibbility that customers will come back. (Soriano, 2002)
In particular, food quality, atmosphere, menu, variety, service from staff, cleanliness, styling, price, interior design and décor, professional appearance of staff and store location are all the components of store image in restaurant industry (Baker et al. 1994; Lindquist, 1974; Prendergast & Man, 2002).
In this study, in order to identify the factors that drive consumers come back to the specific restaurant, firstly will be look at the factors effect consumer’s satisfaction in casual restaurant industry as there is a research done by Ryu & Han (2010). Continuing to find out what are the factors that affect consumer’s satisfaction in theme based restaurants industry. So from here we can actually know what the differences between consumer satisfactions in normal restaurant and in restaurant that has a particular theme.
1.6.1 Casual Dining Restaurant Industry
Casual dining restaurant industry already been started since late of 1960s, in 1980s it started to specialized into a concepts by create casual atmosphere, expand the menu appeal with alcohol and moderate the food price. Casual dining restaurant try to capture customer attention by create a theme and a brand image that represent a generation of the consumer. Casual dining restaurant also has a wide variety on menu items that can be used for any occasions. They continuously improve their menu choices and offers limited items in limted time so consumers attracted to try and make multiple visits to their restaurant. (Murphy, DiPietro, Rivera and Muller, 2009)
Casual dining restaurant has a knowledgeable and higher service level staff compare to fast food restaurants (Muller & Woods, 1994). Currently, casual dining is an important segment of the restaurant industry. It is generating $65 billion sales and over 126,000 restaurants in the United States (NRA, 2007). This industry also expected to continue increse on annual sales between 5% and 7% over the next 5 to 10 years (Darden Restaurants, 2006).
Quick casual restaurant is a combination of fast food and full service restaurant which offers menus and décor and it is reflective of casual dining restaurant. This type of restaurant tends to do high sales volume during lunch time and generate profit slightly higher than standard service restaurants. Their guests are commonly adult customers with middle to upper incomes level (Tillotson, 2003).
1.6.2 Customer Satisfaction Factors in Casual Dining Restaurant
In casual restaurant, there are some factors can affect customer satisfaction such as the attractiveness of restaurant facilities, distinct food and sufficient level of service quality. Customer satisfaction is one of the most critical marketing priorities, because it is assumed to be an implication of repeat sales, positive word of mouth and loyalties of customer.
There are 2 main important aspects in the restaurant industry, (1) tangible (food and restaurant facilities), (2) intangible (interaction between service provider and customer). A proper combination between tangible and intangible aspects will result in customer’s perception of high service quality in that particular restaurant.
The other study also suggested that food quality is the most influence factors affect customer loyalty in restaurant choice (Mattila, 2001). She has indicated top three reasons for customers to patronize their casual dining restaurant were food quality, service, and atmosphere.
1.6.3 Theme Based Restaurant Industry
The important charecteristic of theme restaurant service is consumers must present in the consuming process and experience the service delivery by the providers face to face. Customer wants the satisfaction of specific experiences that meet their perception, expectation and satisfy with the personal preference received during their consuming process (Hsieh & Chen, 2009).
To promote theme restaurant service quality, management starts to focus on Moment of Truth between customers and service providers. Service quality is a communicational aspect, which helps the guest feel the actual warm hospitality showed to them via professional technics and tactics showed in service skills with high quality feeling (Hsieh & Chen, 2009).
Restaurant frequently develop new menus and offer a selection of different menu items to attract customers (Namkung& Jang, 2007). Kivela, Inbakaram& Reece (2000) identified menu variety as a significant attribute of food quality in determining customer satisfaction in theme/atmosphere restaurants. To conclude all the studies that have been found, food quality was the most important factors of overall restaurant service quality and is expected to have a positive relationship between customer satisfaction and loyalty.
1.6.4 Customer Satisfaction Factors in Theme Restaurant
To assess customer satisfaction in the service industry, there is one most popular and widely way through an application of expectancy disconfirmation theory (Oh, 1999). The expectancy disconfirmation states that consumer form an opinion about particular service by comparing the actual service given by service provider with their expectations of how is the serive should have been performed (Oliver, 1980). The result from customer satisfaction is whether a customer’s perception given by service provider meets up to their expectation (Oliver, 1980; 1981).
Study found that from all the possible factors that affect customer satisfaction in restaurants, food quality is the most important and powerful factors for customer to return (Oh, 2000). In addition to that, according to study done by MacLaurin and MacLaurin (2000) about Customer Perceptions of Singapore’s Theme Restaurants, has explored and included food quality as one of the most important elements in theme restaurant, followed by theme concept, service quality, menu, atmosphere, convenience, value, product merchandise and pricing. Moreover, one of the examples from the study found that Hard Rock Café is one if the most successful theme restaurant chains, its in highest rank among its competitiors in terms of food quality (MacLaurin & Mac Laurin, 2000). Therefore, it is logic to think that theme restaurants’ food quality may influence customer satisfaction and result in return intent.
Beside quality of food plays important roles in theme based restaurant industry, there is a study done by Bitner, 1992; Wall and Berry, 2007 has provided evidence of how the physical environment influences consumer behavior. The physical environment of the restaurant such as restaurant’s atmosphere, ambience, décor, furniture, and other facilities can have a great impact on the dining experience (Sloan,2004) and behavioral intentions (Ryu& Jang, 2007). Previous studies found that because of the unique nature of the restaurant service, physical environments could guide consumers in evaluating a restaurant experience (Wall & Berry, 2007). Therefore, restaurant with theme based has wide opportunity to develop and play a big role in restaurant industry.
Quality of atmosphere in a restaurant can influence customer patronage intention (Wakefield & Blodgett, 1994). T