Bounded by the lofty heights of the Himalayas, Nepal is a country of eternal beauty and attraction. It is a land of interesting cultures, ancient history and indigenous people, picturesque scenery and some of the greatest walking on earth. It is universally known for the highest mountain peak of the world, Mount Everest that stands tall at 8848 meters. Nepal tourism notifies about places to visit in Nepal, Lumbini; famous for the birthplace of Gautam Buddha who laid the foundation of Buddhism in the country. Having rich traditions of art, historical sites, customs, culture and heritage, Kathmandu, the capital city of Nepal is a treasure house of ancient art and culture.
Different article, Books, international publication and organization has mentioned that, Nepal is one of the most visited travel destination in South Asia. A report published by Lonely Planet names top ten destinations for 2010, Nepal is one the best destination including El Salvador, Germany, Greece, Malaysia, Morocco, New Zealand, Portugal, Suriname and USA  . Similarly, Magazine Current Issue December 2009/ January 2010 published by BBC, National Geography, had searched 200 top-rated travel destinations of the world and selected the best 25 destinations for 2010. Nepal is one of the best destinations out of 25  .
Reactions of residents concerning tourism
Figure 3 shows a matrix representing the attitudes and behaviour of local residents of the region to tourism. The matrix is based on the framework developed by Bjorklund and Philbrick (1972) and applied to tourism (tourist-host relationship) by Butler (1980)  . The two dimensions of analysis are the attitudes of local residents towards tourism (positive – negative) and their behavioural responses (active – passive). Attitudes and reactions of individuals change in time, according to the process of tourism development in an area.
Host Attitudinal/Behavioural Responses to Tourist Activities in the Region
(% of the Population)
In the Khumbu, Pokhara (including Annapurna), Chitwan and Lumbini regions, the majority of residents (57%) actively support and promote tourist activities and tourism development in the region (mainly by running their own tourist businesses, but also by other means, e.g. learning languages in order to be able to communicate with tourists, or trekking with tourist in trekking routes). Besides, only 5% of them oppose actively further tourism development in the region (mainly for environmental reasons).
The remaining 6.8% of the population have neither positive nor negative attitude toward tourism development.
10.1.1. Tourists and Motivations
“A tourist is a person who travels for various activities form origin to destination with some period. The movement could be inside the country or outside. Similarly, the people who travel and stay in places outside their usual environment for not more than consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes not related to the exercise of an activities remunerated from within the place visited”  http://www.traveletour.com/.
Why do tourists visit certain places? By overlooking in academic approach given by Dann (1981)  , listed seven elements:
Travel is a response to what is lacking yet desired.
Destination pull, in response to motivation push
Motivation as fantasy- behavior not culturally sanctioned at home
Motivation typologies: a) behavioural, such as sun worshipping or wanderlust and, b) typologies focusing on dimensions of the tourist role
Motivation as classified purposes
Motivation and tourist experiences-includes the authenticity debate
Motivation as auto-definition and meaning
Similarly, McIntosh et al., 1995, utilize four categories of motivations, physical, cultural, interpersonal and status and prestige motivators.
In the case of Nepal, generally all international visitors are clubbed under the category of tourists. However, these visitors-cum-tourists visit the country for various purposes ranging from pilgrimage to purely official purposes. All of them spend money while they are in Nepal; they are contributing to this Himalayan economy. Therefore, such range of visitors might be put under the category of tourists. Nepal government has classified the categories of tourists according to activities, like pleasure, trekking, mountaineering, adventure and cultural activities, natural or eco-tourism activates business, education, health etc. (Agrawal, 2005, Tourism and economic development in Nepal).
Nepal is best destination for pleasure trip and adventure activities as well as natural and cultural tourism. It is followed by trekking and mountaineering. The two together accounted for around 90 Per Cent of the total tourists’ arrival before the nineties. Since, 1990 the average share has been around 80 Per Cent of the total. It is clear from the above data the major purposes of tourists in Nepal are pleasure, trekking, mountaineering and adventure activities before 1990. After that, new types of tourists also found in Nepal like cultural tourists (Pilgrimages), study and research, meetings and seminar, and health, since 1991 have shown growth rate of these types of tourist 8.22 and 9.12 per Cent of respectively. By the year of 2007 and 2008, largest number of tourists 41.4% tourists were visited for adventure activities and average length of stay in the country was recorded 12 days.(Source; calculated from several issues of economic survey, Ministry of finance, HMG/N)
On the basis on empirical data, the motivations of tourists were different according to the study areas. Tourists in the mountainous region like Khumbu and Annapurna are interested on adventure activities. Similarly, tourists in Lumbini, Janakpur and Kathmandu valley are interested on cultural pilgrimages. Again, tourists in Chitwan are interested on natural activities. However, majority of tourists agree on, adventure activities.
“Trekking is the gift of Nepal to the world in adventure tourism. To be one with nature, to regenerate one’s own self-esteem, to rediscover oneself, to appreciate Nepal’s beauty, to interact with its hospitable and friendly people are some of the highlights of trekking in Nepal. Trekking is one long-term activity that draws repeat visitors to the country. Possessing eight of the ten highest mountains in the world, Nepal is hotspot destination for mountaineers, rock climbers and people seeking adventure. Therefore, Nepal is the ultimate destinations for the trekking enthusiast. So these are the characteristics of Nepalese tourism, to attract us again and again.”
A German couple, who has visited Nepal more than seven times in Khumbu region.
“Well, Nepal is excellent destination for natural tourism, having highest mountain, varieties of biodiversity, and unique geographic structures are the major attraction for us.”
A group of tourist from USA in Chitwan
“Nepal has many unique cities for tourists like Kathmandu and Pokhara. Kathmandu valley is one of the oldest city with full of religious and cultural heritages, city of living God and Goddess and capital city of Nepal with full range of historic and artistic achievement. Therefore, Kathmandu Valley is world famous. The seven touristic areas (listed in world heritages by UNESCO), the Durbar Squares of Hanuman Dhoka (Kathmandu), Patan and Bhaktapur, the Buddhist stupas of Swayambhu and Bauddhanath and the Hindu temples of Pashupatinath and Changu Narayan. The Kathmandu is an exotic and fascinating showcase of a very rich culture, art and tradition. Again I am very much interested to know the Hindu and Buddhist society and culture; therefore I travel to Nepal frequently.”
A tourist nearby Kathmandu Durbar Square
“When I was in school, I read a book; Nepal is only one Hindu kingdom in the world, only one Hindu kingdom (no more now) For me it was interesting because I know many Christian and Muslim countries but not only one Hindu kingdom, so I have desire to visit Nepal form school level, and finally I am here now.”
A French tourist in Pashupatinath, Kathmandu
“Nepal is holy land for us, because this is the land, where Lord Buddha was born. We are happy to visit Nepal, especially Lumbini (the birth place of God Buddha).”
Around 60 tourists (in-group) from Sri Lanka in Lumbini
A large number of Indian tourists in Kathmandu, and Janakpur
“The Mountains, landscape, and silence natural heritages are the god gifted monuments of Nepal, I love it and that’s why I am here.”
A German scientist in Chitwan
Therefore, according to empirical data, Nepal is the best destination for adventure activities like mountaineering, trekking, natural heritages and many more. Similarly, having majority of Hindus people and its related culture, tradition, temple and more phenomenon, and being the birth of God Buddha, Nepal is significance destination for cultural tourism too.
10.1.2. Major touristic destinations in Nepal
Roof of the world, home of the Gurkhas, land of legend and beauty: within its narrow confines, Nepal contains as amazing range of culture and physical environments offers the visitor and abundance of contrasts and the experiences. A unique landscape unequalled in beauty and variety, cultural diversity, aesthetically built monuments, rugged beauty and tranquility of snowcapped shimmering mountains, serenity and placidness of the lakes and valleys, an unmatched collection of flora, fauna and wild life, diverse races, ethnic groups, dialects and languages all combine to make Nepal a visitor’s dream come true.
Formally, It is also known as the Himalayas kingdom, possessing 8 of 10 heights mountain of the world, unique combination of Buddhism and Hinduism and its phenomenon are always attraction for tourists. Some of the major tourist destinations in Nepal are mountain regions; include the beautiful cities of Kathmandu, Bhaktapur, Patan, Pokhara and other sites. The places in Nepal are known for their various historic sites and sightseeing. Tourists must visit the Royal Chitwan National Park, Nagarjuna Forest Reserve, Pashupatinath, Dakhshina Kali and many more.
Ashok Vyas (2004) Nepal Darshan, indicated, the main touristic areas of Nepal are mountain regions, particular khumbu and Annapuran followed by, Pokhara, Lumbini, Kathmandu Valley, Chitwan and Janakpur. Again, small amount of tourist were interested to visit different parts of the Country.
On the basis on empirical data, the researcher came to know that, tourists indicated different destinations according to their interest. Western tourists were interested to visit mountain regions but Asians were interested to visit cultural sites. In general, Majority (80 out of 100 respondents), were interested to visit mountain areas like Khumbu and Annapurna and they were involved in adventure activities like mountaineering, trekking and rock climbing etc. In addition, 61 out of 100 tourists were interested to visit religious and cultural heritages like Lumbini, Kathmandu Valley and Janakpur. Similarly, 48 out of 100 respondents were interested to visit natural heritages; Chitwan and the Mt. Everest. However, both of them were interested (88 out of 100) to visit lovely city Pokhara. Figure 5.12
Fig. 5.12, major touristic areas of Nepal visited by tourists
Source: Field Study
Mountain Area= Khumbu and Annapurna Region,
Pokhara= Holiday, recreation and adventure
Cultural Sites= Kathmandu valley+ Lumbini+ Janakpur
Natural Heritages= Chitwan and the Mt. Everest
With the help of above empirical data, the researcher agreed on Nepal has been a best destination for adventure tourists. Similarly, pilgrimage (Cultural phenomenon) has been introducing a new kind of tourism destination in Nepal. Lumbini, the birthplace of Buddha, could be an important destination for Buddhist people. Besides there is a famous shrine of Lord Pashupatinath at the Kathmandu and many other Hindus monuments all over the country could be the attraction point for huge Indians.
10.1.3. Nepal, an economical (cheaper) destination
Nepal is the poorest and least developed countries in the world. More than 45 Per Cent of people are under the poverty line. Agriculture is the pillar of the economy, providing a livelihood for majority of the population and accounting for 38% of GDP. The unemployment rate of country is more than 45 Per Cent in the year of 2008. The per capita income of the county by the year 2008 was $473. Asian Development Bank, 2008. The current situation of foreign exchange rate against euro is more than 100 Rupees.
Moscow, the capital city of Russia, is the most expensive city for travelers, followed by Tokyo, Japan. There is not any city or place from South Asians countries, which is expensive for tourist (Source; www.travelersdigest.com, 2009-7-20). Nepal could be one of the cheap destinations for tourists, Upadhyay, Rudra (2006).
“On my personal experiences, Nepal is cheaper destination, because now I am in Namche Bazaar, 3,440 m, local residents said that this is an expensive place for tourist. However, I do not feel so; I am paying $ 20 for a hotel per day, 5 to 20 Dollars for food, which is normal for me. If I were in Switzerland, I have to pay huge amount of money.”
Tourist in Namche Bazaar, Khumbu Region
“Within few moments, I will be in the sky by Paraglide, I paid around 100 euro. But, in Switzerland I have to pay five to seven times more for same thing.”
A German tourist, in Sharankot, Pokhara
“When I was applying visa for Bhutan, I proved that I can spend more than 200 US Dollars a day; this is rule of Bhutan government. But, look in Nepal no condition like this. Again; I am spending less than 50 Dollars a day, which is enough for me.”
A tourist in Pokhara
Similarly, the researcher collected data from tourist on ‘Nepal visit and tourist’s budget’. Majority of respondents (54 Per Cent) were reported, Nepal is cheaper destination followed by, 30 Per Cent; middle and rest 16 Per Cent reported expensive. Figure 5.14;
Figure 5.14, Nepal visit and tourist’s budget.
Source: field study
Therefore, on the basis on empirical data, the researcher found that, Nepal is the cheaper destination for tourists.
During the field study, the researcher asked to the tourists, what amount of money are you planning to spend in Nepal. Majority of respondents ( 38 Per Cent) were reported up to 2000 US dollars, followed by 35 Per Cent; 2000 to 3000and rest 27 Per Cent more than 3000 US dollar, Table 5.13.
Table 5.14, Amount of money tourist wants to spend in Nepal
Source; Field study
Average length of stay of tourist is if on higher side they will spend more money. Thus, more money brought by international tourist would be pumped in the local economy. The average length of stay by a tourist during 1975-90 had been 11.87 days that declined marginally to 11.23 days in the following period of 1991 -2000 and around 12 days in 2008 and 2009  . However, during the data collection the researcher found variety of data.
Fig. 5.13, Average length of stay
Source: Field study
In average, tourists were interested to stay in Nepal around 20 days. Based on the answers given by local people and tourist, it was found that majority of respondents 84 % (210 out of 250) reported that average length of stay of tourist in tourist areas was 20 days (Fig. 5.13).
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS AND RECOMMEDATION
Title: Page No.
Overall review of the research 214
Summary of the findings 215
11.1. Overall review of the research
Chapter 6 provides an overall review of the research aim, objectives, research questions, issues, findings, conclusions and recommendations of this study. Chapter 6 begins by summarizing the background to the research, and the research purpose, methodology and findings. The researcher goes on to make explicit the contribution of this study to the discipline of Socio-cultural and economic impact of tourism in the process of globalization in Nepal. Suggestions are made for future research based on the theme of this study. The chapter concludes with key recommendations for Socio-cultural and economic impact of tourism in the process of globalization in Nepal
The present researcher has attempted to fine out, “Socio-cultural and economic impact of tourism in the process of globalization in Nepal.” It is divided in five major topics with subareas. The first topic is introduction. This chapter has included the introduction, theoretical concerns, hypothesis, aims and objectives, statements (importance), research methodology, and data sources and data analysis model of present research. The key aspect of this chapter is research issues.
This research has three major issues: change in socio-economic setup of Nepal due to globalization and tourism; cultural globalization due to inflict of tourism but also due to globalization in general, and perception of Nepal by tourists. Under the first issue: socio-economic inequality, impact of tourism on Nepalese economy, development and change in touristic areas were the major points for analysis. Similarly in second; impact of global tourism on food, drinks, clothing, languages, family structure and everyday life; tourism and socio-cultural change in Nepal; types of globalization and homogenization adapting by Nepalese by tourist or tourism were major points. The last or final issue of this research was; important and interesting fact of Nepalese tourism for tourist was main phenomenon.
Research methodology is another important subarea of this research. The nature of this research is qualitative cum quantitative (mixed approach). The study areas of this research were major six touristic places of Nepal Mt. Everest National Park (Sagarmatha), Pokhara with Annapurna area, Lumbini (The birthplace of Lord Buddha), Chitwan National Park, Janakpur and Kathmandu Valley including Lalitpur and Bhaktapur. The total numbers of interlocutors of this research were 250 including local people (40 Per Cent), Tourist (40 Per Cent) and jobholder in tourism (20 Per Cent). Questionnaires, interviews, observation, case study and discussion were used for data collection on August to December 2008 and October 2009 to January 2010. The data analysis has been performed by using computer software like Excel, SPSS one way ANOVA and T-Test according to their necessity.
Chapter Two is the collection of theoretical literature review. This chapter has explained the all-important terms and variables of this research. Similarly, chapter Three is the detail explanation of culture, people, land and society of country of the great Himalayas (Nepal).
Chapter Four covers complete data analysis of this research. This covers general demographic (Age, Gender and Education) information of the respondents: tourism, globalization and its impact on Nepali economy, society and culture with different subareas and perception of Nepal by tourist.
Similarly, Chapter 5 includes the summary of findings and suggestions and end part includes references.
In conclusion, tourism is not a new phenomenon in Nepal. The county has welcomed tourists officially since 1953. Tourism has been a significant pillar in the country’s economy and the government using for socio-economic development of rural areas in Nepal. It was the aim of this study to address the important issues related to tourism and impacts in Nepal. The focal point, how residents evaluate the economic, social and cultural impacts of tourism on their community was examined. The final section dealt with the perception of Nepal by tourists.
11.2. Summary of the findings
Tourism is an important process of socio-economic and cultural globalization. It has both positive and negative impacts on society, economy and culture of destination. The truth is that tourism has become one of the largest and most rapidly growing industries in the world by combining social and economic activities. The industry fosters development and affects the people and the place. Impacts of tourism could be positive or negative according to the degree of planning and the level of involvement of local residents in the development process. The outcome is dependent on the relationship between the local residents and the site.
On the basis on data, it has both positive and negative impacts according to places regards to the impact of global tourism. The people are in Khumbu, Annapurana, Chitwan, Jankapur and Lumbini believe that tourism does not contradict religion or traditional customs; they are of the opinion that it has no influences on their daily life or their patterns of consumption. However, the people from Kathmandu and Pokhara Valley are strongly addressed there is huge impact of tourism and tourists’ activities on local culture, society, traditions, food, languages and everyday life. However, in general all respondents fell that it could influences in food, language, clothes and younger generations more. Finally, residents believe that tourism could be a solution for unemployment, poverty, income, and socio-cultural changes.
It was found that tourism plays the important role in the Nepalese economy. Tourism has playing quantifiable and positive effects on the development of GDP of the country. It has been increasing the economy of the country in general and as a whole. The increase in the volume of tourist flow has direct as well as indirect impact on the development process of Nepal. Nevertheless, tourism was found to be more capital investor and employer in Nepal
In general, tourism has both positive and negative impacts, but majority of residents have a positive attitude toward tourism and they believe that it can develop their communities, like main source of income, job, poverty alleviation, source of foreign reserves and revenue, and national and local business. People involved in this profession have found better life compare to others. They have better opportunity of employment, income, education, quality of life and many more. However, the largest economic impacts of tourism are experienced by the residents near the Khumbu, Annapurna, Pokhara, Lumbini, Chitwan, Janakpur and some part of Kathmandu Valley, while people living in remote areas and in off-site of tourist areas or routes could not reap the benefits of tourism as they have very limited things to offer. Thus, this is clear, tourism increasing socio-economic inequality among the Nepalese.
A side effect of residents expecting profits is that locals evaluate tourists according to their expenditures, potentially leading to negative attitudes and conflicts between residents and tourists and between the various social groups living within the local community. In addition, while tourism has the potential to introduce economic benefits for the government and the people.
Normally tourism still has little impact on local society and culture. Participants report that tourism has less contradicted religion and traditions, while some of them expressed the fear of potential impact on younger generations. Such sentiments were centered near Khumbu and Annapurna, where the impact on society and culture are more present than in the other sites. Among the negative impacts reported in study, areas are; the consumption of alcohol, the imitation of tourist behaviour and sexual relations with tourists, increasing foreign food, dress, drug, language, gambling and unwanted lifestyle change. The positive impacts of tourism were especially highlighted by those working in tourism. Some reported that tourism is single source of their economic life, while others claim to have learned positive skills from tourists that improve their interaction with family members and in society. Similarly, for the Government tourism is an important pillar of national economy and best way to reduce poverty in rural areas of Nepal. Finally, tourism is an important transmitter of globalization in Nepal. It seems a process of acculturation or westernization or Americanization and leads globalised homogenous society and culture. Majority of respondents agreed on tourism and globalization develops globalized homogeneous culture but the same time Nepalese cultures are reconstructed on local levels.
Tourists were found highly satisfied with weather, natural scenery, wild animals, people’s behavior, hospitality, friendliness, helpfulness humbleness, honest, welcoming attitude of the people, sense of remoteness and authenticity, religious customs, fulfillment of scene of adventure, historical sites, culture, entertainment, language communication, agency services and guide services. However, they were found to be less satisfied with immigration, transportation, airlines services, lodging, sightseeing tour, shopping facilities, tourist information service, regular strike (Nepal banda), tax, and food and drinks in Nepal. Again, they had realized the potential for further tourism development in Nepal.
Having top mountains of the World, colorful cultures, ancient history and people, picturesque scenery, birthplace of Gautam Buddha, rich traditions of art, culture and heritage and one of the best destination for adventure activities; the country of great Himalayas (Nepal) is one of the best destination for tourism. The perceptions of tourist are found positive. Out of different attraction phenomenon, adventure activities and places are the main attraction for tourists followed by religion and culture. Majority of tourist are agreed on Nepal is the cheapest destination.
There is no doubt tourism is a means of globalization and have impact on society, culture and economy of the country. Tourism is the main way of globalization in different phenomenon like economy, culture and society of Nepal. Nepalese society, culture and economy have been suffering from various impact of tourism. Basis on the empirical data, the researcher have found following suggestions on this research.
Tourism is an important process of socio-economic and cultural globalization. It has both positive and negative impacts on society, economy and culture of destination. Therefore, it is recommended that Nepalese should be aware from such impact.
Tourism is seen as the means of development in rural areas of Nepal. Therefore, government and local people should use tourism as the development tools for rural Nepal.
It is found that tourism has both positive and negative impacts on society and culture according to places. Some tourist areas have less impact and some have more. Therefore, Nepalese and government should implement proper programme to reduce negative impacts.
The impact of tourism on the social system and culture of locals are diversity according to tourist hubs. Participants from Kathmandu, Pokhara and Chitwan reported that tourism contradict religion, tradition, social norms, local culture, society, food, language, clothes and may more related to social and culture phenomenon, while others from rest tourist hubs reported tourism does not contradict religion and tradition. But, from both places people, express the fear of the greater impact on the younger generation. Therefore, to protect from such evidence, it is necessary to give proper education or information to the Nepalese and special education or information to the younger generation.
Majority of respondents have positive attitude of tourism and believe that it can develop their communities. Tourism is pillar, employer, poverty eliminator, source of foreign currencies, revenue, local business and capital investor of Nepalese economy but government is not giving proper importance in it. It is recommended that government should give priority for tourism development.
Regarding to the role of tourism in globalization of economy Nepal has been found that the direct impact of tourism on earning foreign exchange has been improving. However, if it is analyzed with respect to merchandize trade, overall foreign exchange earnings in the economy the role of tourism has been increasing. The ratio of foreign exchange earnings from tourism and GDP has been increasing very slowly. Nepalese and government of Nepal should think on it. The foreign participation in the tourism industry remains confined to mainly hotel, resorts and restaurants. Therefore, government and people should encourage foreign investors to invest in new areas of activities related to tourism in Nepal.
The residents near the tourist hubs of Nepal experience the largest economic impacts of tourism, where a large number of residents have become dependent on tourism, while in the other sites tourism still has no significant economic meaning. Therefore, in this situation economic benefit of tourism should be managed to the equal manner
It is found that people in tourism have better living standard because they have better income. Only few Nepalese are involved in tourism therefore they are getting better quality of life and education but majority of Nepalese are in off-site, which is socio-economic inequality due to tourism. To promote the living standard of those people, who are off-site, government and Nepalese should focus balanced tourism development project and distribute appropriate income of tourism.
Regarding employment in tourism, it was also found that tourism is not yet considered a plausible and appropriate employment opportunity by local jobseekers. Among the reasons are lacks of education and training centers, low wages paid to employees in tourism service, lack of insurance and job security, to a certain degree, the traditional and social values of the communities. Concerning education and training, the study identified that the authorities do not consider tourism to be a helpful means in dealing with the issues of human resources. This reflects the low priority given to education and training in tourism as an independent field of study, even when there is a project with a scheduled budget for training. Therefore, it is necessary to create positive attitudes towards tourism related job for this educational institution should be established.
Total foreign exchange earnings of Nepal have been growing after introduction of tourism. Foreign investment has been increasing in tourism because it will be potential sources of return for them. However, this analysis shows that foreign investors were keen to invest in hotels, resorts and restaurants. Other activities could not attract foreign investors. Here lies the need to promote other activities rela