The promotion of Rajasthan as a heritage tourist destination
In order to accomplish the aims and objectives, this piece of work focused on the promotion of Rajasthan as a heritage tourist destination in the world. The vital idea behind the selection of this topic is to discuss the importance of heritage tourism.
Tourism plays an important role in the socio-economic development of any country. It is also one of the major sources to earn foreign exchange, and generating employment for urban as well as rural public. This chapter have 6 parts. Background of the study
- Background to the study:
Tourism industry in India is on a great boom at the moment. India has a great potential to be a major tourist destination in the world. It’s the second highest foreign exchange earning industry and government gave travel and tourism industry an export status. Indian tour and travel industry is one of the most profitable industries in the country. During the year 2006, four million tourists visited India and spent US$8.9 billion (Economy watch, 2006).
The buoyancy in the Indian tourism industry can be attributed to several factors. Firstly, the tremendous growth in the Indian economy, because of that the disposable income of the middle-class increased to expend on their recreation. Secondly, the IT sector in the country by which India famous as an IT hub in the world. Which attract people globally for business trips. Thirdly, the aggressive advertising campaign “Incredible India” by the tourism ministry of India also changes the image of India worldwide. Tourism industry also provides employment to millions of people directly and indirectly in the country. Which help the society and solve the big issues of unemployment in the country. Estimates of 20 million people are directly employed by this sector in the country currently. According to the above lines Rajasthan the north-west state of India is very popular among the national and international visitors. The royally palaces and forts, endless golden desert, hardworking and colourful people make the state more exciting to visit.
Besides all this, Probably India is the only country which offers various categories of tourism. These include history tourism, adventure tourism, medical (Ayurvade and other) tourism, eco tourism, culture tourism, rural tourism, religious/pilgrimage tourism, spiritual tourism and beach tourism etc (I love India, 2007)
Justification of the study:
Heritage tourism is now big business. In economic and entrepreneurial terms, it is one of the major success stories of recent years. At a time of declining Industrial activity and rising unemployment in any society, heritage tourism has provided an alternative form of enterprise, creating jobs and generating wealth for local economies (Herbert, 1995).
Tourism in India has the potential to do wonder in this upcoming industry of profit as well as fun. Rajasthan the largest state, and one of the most eminent tourist destinations, which is famous for its pictureqous natural beauty and wonderful construction. Rajasthan are usual attractions for first time visitors (Mintel, 2008).
The outlook for travel industry in India looks extremely bright. “Conde Nast” rank India 6th amongst the top 10 tourist destination in the annual “Reader’s Award” in 2004, which was 9th a year before. The magazine ranked Raj Vilas, in Jaipur (Rajasthan) as 3rd in the overseas leisure hotel category for Asia (Business Standard, 2004). The JBIC (Japan Bank of International Cooperation) rank her 5th most attractive investment destination.
The report “Indian Tourism Industry Analysis” provides an insight into the Indian tourism market. According to the report, India is one of the most potential tourism markets in the world. India expected to see 10million international tourist by 2010, which was 5million in 2007. Andhra Pradesh, Utter Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Rajasthan are the leading tourist destinations in the country (Bharat Book Bureau, 2004)
Aims and Objectives:
To critically assess the opportunities to promote Rajasthan as a heritage tourist destination
- Evaluate the potential of Rajasthan’s heritage to develop as tourist destination.
- Critically evaluate the present tourism promotion system and the government policies on Rajasthan tourism.
- The development of recommendations for the promotion of Rajasthan as a heritage tourism destination.
The colourful and exotic state of Rajasthan lies in the north-western part of India. It is the largest state (132,150 sq mi) and also knows as the land of kings, the home of Rajputs (Indianhills). Rajasthan is bordered on the west by Pakistan. In the west of state is the Thar Desert and the upland region of Deccan in the eastern part. The Aravalli hills cross the state from north-east to the south-west. The state was formed in 1948 from several former principalities states of Rajputana. Rajasthan is one of the strongholds of the conservative Hindu (75% of the population) then Muslims, Jains and native people (Encyclopaedia).
The largest state with 33 districts and a population of 56.47million (2001 census) with a literacy rate of 61.03%, Jaipur is the state’s capital as well as the cultural, financial and trade capital of the state. Rajasthani, Sindhi and Punjabi are the regional languages of the state. Hindi and English also commonly used by people (Answer.com).
Heritage is not only the monument or historic buildings, but everything which relate us to the rich past of that particular culture or tradition is heritage. The folk dance and music, souvenir (cloths and jewels), craft work (handicraft like paintings, iron or wood work) and festivals, fairs food and lifestyle are also the part of the rich cultural heritage of any destination.
Rajasthan is a state with entirely different visage, the most scenic state of India. The culturally rich state of Rajasthan is popular for its festivals & fairs, luxury trains, folk dances/music, arts/crafts and royal legacy in the form of palaces, forts and gardens. It medieval forts and palaces, the very distinctive nomadic desert lifestyle is unique all over the world.
A world of colour, splendour and spectacle awaits visitors to India’s largest and the most romantic state. With its wild desert scenery, ancient sandcastle forts, pastel colour cities, dust speckled light and its swathes of scarlet, and marigold textiles (The Independent Asia), which creates Rajasthan one of the most popular tourist destinations in west India. It can be said as; it is the cultural capital of India. There are various popular destinations in Rajasthan but the main tourists attracting cities are Ajmer, Jaipur, Jodhpur, Jaisalmer and Udaipur. All these cities were the former Princely states, as the result tourist can witness the imperial legacy everywhere in these cities. Here we have the brief panorama of the famous cities and their heritage.
1.5.1 Panorama of the Heritage Cities of Rajasthan:
Ajmer Founded in the 7th century by ruler Ajaypal Chauhan. Have a famous fort called “Ajaimeru” or Invincible hill, lakes gardens and many other visiting places. Ajmer is about 130km south-west from Jaipur is the major religious centre for Muslims. This city is famous for the tomb of Khwaja Moin-ud-din Chisti, a medieval Sufi Saint, where pilgrims gather from over the world (India hills.com). 16km from Ajmer, Pushkar a very small town named after the holy lake “Pushkar”. 400 temples and 52 Ghats around the lake make it a very popular religious centre of Hindu community. The one and only lord Brahma temple is here. Otherwise sleepy town turn into a hub in the annual Pushkar festival in October or November every year (Travel 2 Rajasthan.com)
Mount Abu, Rajasthan’s only hill station is home to Dilwara Jain temples known’s for their amazing marble carving. The oldest of the five temples dates to AD 1031. Nikki Lake, sunset point, Achal Garh fort and Guru Shikar the highest point of Rajasthan are the other famous visiting spot in Mount Abu.
Chittaurgarh located 70 miles northeast of the City of Udaipur is the home of Chittaur fort India’s largest fort and the ultimate symbol of Rajputs chivalry and pride. The nine-story Vijay Sthambha or Tower of Victory is the most highlighting feature of the fort (Ref J). http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdf?vid=6&hid=5&sid=af82485a-215e-4122-a4ff-0942348b33c5%40sessionmgr11
Located on the foothills of a sandstone hillock, the city of Jodhpur seems like an oasis in the vast desert was founded by Rao Jodha Ji (Rathore clan) in 1459. It named after him only. Jodhpur is the second largest city of Rajasthan, divided into two parts the old city (which is inside the 10km wall) and new city. Jodhpur is a very popular tourist destination. The city landscape is very pleasing and attractive. The city has lots of attractions in the form of forts, palaces, gardens, temples and lakes. The city is known as “Sun City” because of its bright and sunny weather throughout the year (Jodhpur India), and also the building were painted in light blue hue. Located at the edge of the endless golden Thar Desert, Jodhpur is a fascinating medieval city known for its amazing architectural splendour, lively culture, brilliant craftsmen, gourmet cuisines and lots of shopping. The city has various attractions in the form of Maharangarh fort, Umaid Bhawan Palace, Mandore garden, Mahamandir temples and Jaswant Thada the royal cenotaphs. This attracts the domestic and international visitors equally (Palace on wheels).
The ‘City of Lakes’ (often referred to as the ‘Venice of the East’) Udaipur is the home to lakes Pichola and Fateh sagar, both are amazingly beautiful for cruise and sunset. The city is also famous for City places and Lake palace (hotel), Sahelion Ki Bari or “Garden of the Maids of honour”, museum and temples are the other visitors attractions. Marwar festival fall in the spring is also very famous in national and international visitors.
The Golden city of Jaisalmer is famous for its fort, havelies, national park and Sam (sand dunes). Nothing else in India is remotely similar to Jaisalmar, with its fort that straight out of an Arabian Night fable.
The capital city and the natural gateway to the exotic state Rajasthan, Jaipur popularly known as ‘Pink City’ in the world is the main visitors delight. Founded in 17th century and named after is founder Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh. Jaipur is the cultural, trade and financial capital of Rajasthan. With Delhi and Agra, jaipur is the third important vertex of the ‘Golden Triangle’.
Stunning backdrop of ancient forts: Nahargarh, Amer, Jaigarh and Moti Doongari fort. Hawa Mahal, City Palace, and Jal Mahal are some well-known landmark palaces in the city with famous Albert hall museum.
Significance of tourism to the Indian economy:
2. Literature Review
Literature pays a major role in any research or case study. Virtually no research can be done without the benefit of references, whatever the scale or nature of the project will be (Brunt, 1998). Fink (1998:3) believes that literature review is a “systematic method for identifying, evaluating and interpreting the work produced by researchers, scholars and practitioners”
Yin (2003) also suggest that evidences for good literature may also come from six sources suck as documents, archival records, interviews, direct observation, participant-observation and physical artefacts. Yin (2003) further suggested that literature review provided all sort of information like data, statistic, graphs and scholar view about the topic. A useful overview of the six major sources considers their comparative strength and weaknesses. You should immediately note that no signal source is highly complementary, and a good case study will therefore desire to use as many sources as possible.
A good literature review is not just a description of previous work; it also appraises, compares and contrasts it with other relevant work, and with the authors own work (Brown, 2006). Literature review is the section which will provide reference, if followed up, will widen your knowledge and stimulate independent thought (Altinay el at, 2008:25).
Hart (1998) explained the importance of literature review by suggesting that “without it you will not acquire an understanding of your topic, of what has already been done on it, how it has been researched, and what they key issues are” (Hart, 1998:1).
At this point of report the critical review of the available literature is important in order to achieve above mention aims and objectives. In order to get main aim which to promote Rajasthan as a heritage tourist destination, number of academic Books related on heritage tourism and development will help to critically evaluate the prosperous cultural heritage of Rajasthan, which is the first objective of this report. Through this literature the value and significance of the heritage can identified, and it will also help to check the scale of the heritage in Rajasthan.
As the new trend of getting information by electronic media like: Television, internet will be a great help, particularly the official tourism websites of Rajasthan or India tourism will provide the latest information on this sector. And also provide information about the recent tourism development promotion, policies and issues. Internet is the best ever, faster and the more efficient information provider these days, and also the information on the sites are more authentic and quick.
Daily news papers contain articles, interviews and editorial will give the current updates about tourism industry and its achievement. Editorial column will provide critical analysis of government’s tourism policies and tourism forecast. Leading national and local dailies (Rajasthan Patrika and Danik Bashkar and The Times of India) will show case current events and news on Rajasthan tourism.
The official statistics compiled by the government department and public sector agencies provide a valuable source of information (Burnt, 1998). This can provide by the official website, news dailies and journals based on Rajasthan.
2.1 What is Heritage and Heritage Tourism?
In 1983 National Heritage Conference defined heritage as: ‘that which a past generation has preserved and handed on to the present and which a significant group of population wishes to hand on to the future’ (Hewison, 1989). Hardy (1988) said most researchers accept that heritage is linked to the past that it represents some sort of inheritance to be passed down to current and future generations, both in terms of cultural traditions and physical artefacts (Dallen et al. 2003:2). These definitions indicate culture choice; its focus on preservation and the fact that some people will adopt a conservationist view of heritage. (Herbert, 1997:8). Heritage is like a gift which is passed by one generation to another in the form of culture, nature, customs which is different and unique from others.
Prentice (1993) said heritage can be classified as tangible immovable resources (buildings, natural areas) and tangible movable resources (objects in museums, documents in archives); or intangibles such as values, customers, ceremonies, lifestyles, and including experiences such as festivals, arts and cultural events. Heritage can also classified according to type of attraction (Dallen et al. 2003:3).
Oxford English dictionary define heritage (1983) as which has been or may be inherited. That’s mean anything which pass from previous (old) generation to another (new) in the form of physical, cultural, natural and financial or other can be heritage.
Tourism is not just an aggregate of merely commercial activities; it is also an ideological framing of history, nature and tradition; a framing that has the power to reshape culture and nature to its own needs said by MacCannell in 1992, (Herbert, 1997:1)
The origins of tourism are ancient. Urry (1990) suggested that tourism was known in Imperial Rome with the use of seaside ‘resort’; certainly in medieval times pilgrimages to the Holy Land involved pleasure and sightseeing as well as religious duty. As a concept and a reality, the Grand Tour was established by the late seventeenth century as a component of polite society’s social round (Herbert, 1997:6). Heritage is not just the historic monument or cenotaphs buildings, but all which relate people with the rich past of that particular culture or tradition is heritage.
These above lines explain that tourism is nothing recent, by which we can say that it’s a very new concept in the society. Tourism is very old and was present in the different form like seaside or pilgrims.
But in 21st century it become more immense and fascination by the media. And tourism is different from leisure because in tourism people go out from there home overnight and stay there and enjoy the place by any reason. It can be religious, medical or just leisure. To show case the historic monuments to handicrafts or artefacts, and allow for community to view and be taught about there great past is heritage tourism.
2.2 Modelling of heritage and heritage tourism
This debate reveals that heritage and heritage tourism is complex. To simplify and to make it more clearly the following model is proposed; model of heritage and heritage tourism. Figure 1
This model is approach the behavioural perspective within behavioural geography. It suggests that heritage exists within the two types of environment; ‘phenomenal (unique) and ‘behavioural’ (human behaviour).
The previous is an expansion of the normal concept of environment that include natural phenomena and cultural and built environment that have been either altered or created by human activity on the other hand, the behavioural environment is where the social and cultural facts existing within the phenomenal environment are passed through a filter of human values (Dallen et al. 2003:7)
According to Kirk (1963), these environments forms on the basis on which decision are made which may, or may not, be acted upon to be translated into action within the phenomenal environment.
Heritage tourism experience is in the core of this model, and the key outcome is good experience out of every trips. As the expanded inner section of the model illustrate, the heritage tourism experience is formed within what is labelled here as the “experimental heritage environment”. The core heritage tourism experience is influence and shaped by mixed elements like supply and demand (of the destination), politics (government policies), authenticity, conservation (of heritage) with in any destination region. How all those element influence each other and by their role they play in heritage tourism experience.
The model of heritage tourism clearly gives answer, that heritage and the heritage tourism is very complex and they overlap each other in different environments. And they both (phenomenal and behavioural) affect the destination with other components in the core; economic filter and cultural/societal filter.
It is important now to return to the question of a heritage spectrum (range) as advocated earlier by Richards (1996). This concept is very important as it helps to clarify the existence of many types of heritage experiences and heritage landscapes. It purely means that when we talk about tourism experience it has all types of tourism with its landscapes types and heritage attractions.
The heritage spectrum model suggest that the heritage landscapes pass through a multiplicity of setting ranging from the natural and immaculate to then built urban and artificial heritage landscapes. The model also shows that heritage tourism has common characteristics of ecotourism (nature based) on the left side and urban tourism (theme perks) and cultural tourism (viewing cultural heritage, architecture) in the right side and middle respectively.
The following model also demonstrates that the tourism types (eco-tourism, cultural-tourism and urban-tourism) should not be viewed as mutually exclusive as overlaps most certainly exist. Because of this reality the model refers to heritage tourism as an overlapping concept.
Types of tourism in heritage tourism overlap each other but also give types of landscapes and type of heritage attractions separately. In which ecotourism give natural and rural types of landscape if visiting national parks in the type of heritage attraction.
2.3 Value and significance of heritage
The focus of value shifts to the significance people place on heritage. Hall and McArthur (1993) identified four interrelated areas of significance in heritage: economic, social, political and scientific significance.
Economic significance: Heritage is not cheap! Restoring a property maintaining it, installing necessary facilities (i.e. toilets and drinking water) and establishing and running an interpretive programme can easily cost twice as much (Dallen, 2003:143).
Zeppel and Hall (1992) believe heritage is preserved because of the value it offers in terms of expenditures, of visitors to site (Dallen, 2003:13). Tourism is big business and really in demand. People have started paying these days for outdoor fun, and if the destinations have potential they will not think twice to visit there. Rajasthan heritage have the potential to attract the tourist all over and generate foreign exchange.
Social significance: this refers to the private and collective identity that people and society have with ‘their’ heritage. That’s what local person and community think about their heritage, and how they value to it. The people of Rajasthan feel pride on is rich and colourful cultural heritage. A social ethics will often be the driving force to consider preservation in the first instance (Dallen, 2003:13).
Political significance: As Hall and McArthur note, heritage by definition is political, in terms of reinforcing what is conserved, how heritage is told, and placing the wishes of private owners of heritage into conflict with government or public interests.
In the words of Johnson (1999:187), ‘heritage tourism is not just a set of commercial transactions, but the ideological framing of history and identity’. Politics is in its very essence about power, and heritage by its very nature is apolitical phenomenon, since history is always told from the perspective of winners of wars and people in positions of power (Hall 1994, 97, 2000), (Dallen, 2003:257).
The history of Rajasthan is all about war and warriors. Politic is all over the place in Rajasthan. Even though in literature, arts and crafts there are a pinch of politic.
Scientific significance: many national parks and protected forest areas may contain genetic material and ecosystems (flora and fauna) that will be useful to medicine and research work. They also provide habitats for rare and endangered species. There is also an educative part to heritage-providing visitors with information about the living history, culture, and people of areas (Dallen, 2003:13).
Not only the national parks, protected forest and wildlife’s had their scientific significance in the heritage of Rajasthan, but the agrological site as well. The site of Indus valley civilisation in Indian sub-continent is very important for the study of river valley human history. The Harappa civilisation considers one of the oldest civilisations on earth.
2.4 Scales of Heritage
Heritage is not homogeneous (uniform); it exists in different level and scales, namely world, national, local and personal (Graham et al. 2000; Swarbrooke 1994; Timothy 1997). Given model illustrates these scales of heritage tourism experience, suggesting that they are all linked by the notion of ‘shared heritage’ (Dallen, 2003:14).
Heritage is very heterogeneous (varied); it can be different in one destination. And if the destination is in India the probability is much because India is a very diverse country with the birth place of many cultures and civilisation. Rajasthan which is the largest and the most colourful state is also not an exception in is cultural heritage.
World: Timothy (1997) noted that world scale heritage attraction draw large masses of tourists from many countries. How ever, for most foreign tourist, these sites themselves are likely to be only a small part of more extensive itinerary. For example visiting a historic agrological site of Harappa visitor can witness the life and culture of that era.
Visiting an international heritage attraction is a way of appreciating universal civilisation and achieving some degree of human unity (Moulin 1991). The idea to conserve our heritage came first in the early 1970s by UN’s environment programme and UNESCO’s Man Biosphere Programme.
National: ‘Through time, certain heritage features came to symbolise a society’s shared recollection (Lowenthal 1975:12). Foe example the Holy town of Pushkar is a symbol (pilgrim) of Hindu community and Ajmer is for Muslims in Rajasthan. On this level, historical monuments often represent durable national ideals, and national pride can be an important stimulus of preserving the built environment in western societies (Lowenthal 1975; Timothy 1997) these type of historic site can be pride of any society like Taj Mahal is a pride for each and every Indian.
Local: Lowenthal (1979:554) noted that the local level, communities need familiar land marks so that they can remain in touch with their own collective pasts in a rapidly changing world. There are many sites which are not very popular but they still have their local importance like, The nine-story Vijay Sthambha or Tower of Victory is the most highlighting feature of Chitturghar fort is the memorial of their local hero’s, women and children who sacrifice their lives for the motherland. For visitors it just a memorial tower but the significance for the local were very different, it very important for them.
‘Memorials erected in memory of a community‘s earliest pioneer efforts, or a local historical museum can provide an important experience for local to which outsiders may not be able to relate’ (Timothy 1997:752).
Personal: Lowenthal (1979) asserted that modern-day destination of historic relics has deepened people’s sense of nostalgia for the past. A search for root and historical identity and an increased appreciation for one culture and family legacy are evidence of this phenomenon. Timothy said (1997) of the four type of scale of heritage here personal heritage has received the least attention in the literature and hence is least understood.
Personal scale of heritage is very private. For example family reunions travel to historic or religious place, cultural and vocational interest is another form of personal scale of heritage. The attachments with family houses or souvenirs are perfect example of personal scale of heritage.
2.5 What is Marketing and Destination Marketing
‘Marketing is the management process responsible for identifying, anticipating and satisfying customer requirement profitably’ define by the Chartered Institute of Marketing, CIM UK. And the other hand the American Marketing Association ‘Marketing (management) is the process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion, and distribution of ideas, goods, and services to create exchanges that satisfy individual and organisational objectives’ (Seaton et al.1999:6).
As per Adcock remark ‘The right product, in the right place, at the right time, at the right price’. The most influential and dominant word of 21th century is marketing or if said like this, that everything is saleable if the packaging is good i.e. the right product marketed at the right place at the right time (season) with a right price (in compression to competitors) is marketing by Adcock. It means that marketing is not only selling or advertising, but also to promote the brand value and quality to the customers. And also build a connection between the producer and customers. The aim of marketing for an organisation is to achieve profit or other objective. Marketing is not only important for the manufacturing or production industries, but equally necessary for the promotion of hospitality and tourism industry to achieve desire goal. A social and managerial process by which individual and groups obtain what they need and what through creating and exchanging products and value with others is called marketing (Kilter, P 2003).
Seaton (1999:351) said that the destination marketing is the spirit land of tourism marketing. The destination has the internal connection to all the other industries (stakeholders) in the tourism sector like transport, hotels and attractions. Destination management is not just managing the physical product (i.e. the venue, hotels, transport system, visitor attractions) but also very much to do with building companies reputation and teamwork across the destination, its also has an important component to play in creating understanding and recognition across the community for the economic importance of the conference, trade and events sector (Davidson et al. 2006:35).
Marketing is the process of planning and execute and the promotion of the product of achieve the desire goal and objective in terms of profit and brand success. Like the same theory functioning behind the destination management or tourism marketing management. Destination marketing management show case the destination as product and highlights to get profit out of it heritage and culture.
Benefits of destination management
‘Kotler (1984:68) define it as ‘T